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bodies response to primary head injury: inflammation, bleeding, hematomas. all cause squeezing on brain
acceleration and deceleration injuries. still and hit from behind, and moving head hits dashboard
jarred body transmits to the brain and it moves with in the skull across ridged edges , causes tearing and shearing of the brain and blood vessels
open head injury
an exposure of intercranial contents to the external environment this can cause infection
rotation / tortion injury
brain spins around the skull on impact from acceleration or decleration. causes brain to become stretched and blood vessel stretch and can obstruct blood flow
occurs when an object forcibly enters the cranial vault damaging the protective meningeal layers, cerebral blood vessels and brain tissue
skull fracture, concussion, cerebral contusion or intracranial hemorrage. usually associeated with a blunt object striking the head or head hit dashboard
occurs when the brain strikes the skull surface opposite the site of original impact
rotational acceleration-deceleration injury
forces that cause the brain to twist within the skull, resulting in torsion and shearing of brain tissue and possible vascular disruption
a minimal traumatic brain injury. no break in the dura and non penetrating and loss of consciencious does not last more than 6 hours
post concusive syndrome
cognitive changes from even a mild concussion must treat symptoms, can last for years
second impact syndrome
a second concussion that occurs while healing from first one can be lethal and deadly
A focal brain injury. causes specific injuries depending on which part of the brain is impacted and what that part controls
necrosis of the brain in the injured area and leaves neuro deficits to the part of the body controlled by the injured area
tearing of the cortical surfaces followed by swelling and bleeding within the skull= a mass effect of a space occupying lesion
diffuse axonal injury
caused from deceleration and acceleration forces that shear and tear the axons (the messengers) damage to a wide spread area
bullet type head injury
shock waves occur and create a cavity calles a wound tract. shock waves are 30-40 times the size of the bullet
basilar skull fractures
fractures of one or more of the 5 bones lovated at the base of the skull. will have a tear in the dura adjacent to the injury
greater than the skull's thickness mush have sx to elevate the bone = a cranioplasty
5 bones in the base of the skull (basiular fractures)
frontal (forehead), temperal (both side), occipital (back lower portion), ethmoid (eye socket), sphenoid (above the cheek)
brain stem and vital organs resides
anterior fosse, posterior fosse, middle fosse (basicular bones form these hollow depressions)
NX care for basicular fractures
neuro cks, cardiac, respiratory , BP, antibiotics, steroids to decrease inflammation, lumbar puncture twice a day if they do not have increased intercranial pressure.
complication of basicular fractures
can cause corrided artery hemorrage , damage cranial nerves 3. 4 and 6 (eyes)
can increase metabolic rate and the need for the brain to have more O2 (which would increase ICP from the vasodilation)
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