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Final Exam

STUDY
PLAY
Secretion of aldosterone will:
cause water to be retained
B vitamins are
water soluble
Vitamin K is
fat soluble
True/false An individual can live with only one kidney.
True
Failure to have a menstrual period:
amenorrhea
Aldosterone is secreted by the:
adrenal cortex
Which of the following gives protection against parasites?
eosinophils
The effect of increased sodium concentration in the blood
increases blood volume
How many sperm cells are produced at the end of one complete cycle of meiosis?
4
Which of the following is a "normal" range for fasting blood glucose levels?
80-110 mg per 100 mL of blood
The deciduous teeth are the:
"baby" teeth
Dehydration caused by vomiting or diarrhea is of greater concern in
infants
Absence of urine
anuria
Which of the following is the most distal part of the small intestine
ileum
True/false Fibrinogen is a blood protein involved in blood clotting
True
The largest of the salivary glands
parotid
Aldosterone helps to regulate
sodium
Which one of the following is important in glucose metabolism?
insulin
What is the condition in which a patient voids urine involuntarily?
incontinence
Mumps involves which one of the following glands?
parotid
True/false The pharynx is part of both the respiratory and digestive systems
True
The largest gland in the body
liver
A macrophage is a type of:
phagocyte
A lack of Vitamin B12 may result in:
pernicious anemia
Male and female sex cells are called
gametes
Which one of the following is the "preferred" source of energy for the body?
carbohydrates
Filtration occurs in the:
glomerulus
Temperature regulation is under the control of the
hypothalamus
A chemical substance that prevents a sharp change in the pH of a fluid when an acid or base is added to it:
buffer
True/false Very little sodium is lost in the feces
True
The study of aging:
Gerontology
Another name for urination is
micturition
Which of the following is NOT a function of the placenta?
respiration
The greatest amount of water is found in:
intracellular fluid
A fertilized egg is called a
zygote
The openings of the ureters and the urethra in the urinary bladder is a triangular region called:
the trigone
The resulting symptoms of a hiatal hernia are referred to as
gastroesophageal reflux disease
True/false Assimilation is the process of food molecules entering the cells.
True
True/false The uterine tubes are directly in contact with the ovaries
False
The appendix is directly attached to
Cecum
The mitral valve is also known as the
bicuspid valve
The mixture of sperm, and the secretions of the accessory sex glands:
semen
The foreskin of the penis is also called the:
prepuce
A solution with a pH of 4 would be considered
acidic
The nucleus of a sperm cell is covered by a specialized structure that has lytic enzymes that are capable of penetrating the ova. This structure is the:
acrosome
Another name for tooth decay:
caries
Aldosterone is secreted by:
the adrenal cortex
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
endocarditis
Which of the following is the hardest tissue in the body?
enamel
The inner part of the kidney:
renal medulla
Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging?
Nerve conduction speed increases
Which one of the following is NOT a muscle of respiration?
deltoid
An increase in capillary pressure will:
shift fluid out of the capillaries
In women the urethra is part of the
urinary tract
True/false Progesterone is produced continually throughout the menstrual cycle
False
The function of testosterone:
all of the above
The color of "normal" urine:
transparent yellow, amber or straw colored
Of the main fluid compartments, which varies the most in terms of its volume?
interstitial fluid
Pneumonia involves the
lower respiratory tract
The urethra is longer in:
men
Which of the following is NOT part of the female external genitalia?
prepuce
True/false Renal calculi (kidney stones) is a type of cancer
False
The testes are responsible for producing:
a and d
testosterone
spermatozoa
The external opening through which urine leaves the body:
urinary meatus
A deficiency of this vitamin may lead to neural tube defects in infants:
folic acid
All of the following influence blood pressure EXCEPT:
strength of atrial contractions
Fertilization of the ovum by the sperm occurs in
the fallopian tubes
How many functional ova are produced at the end of one complete cycle of meiosis?
1
The body's best defense against wide variations in blood pH
the kidneys
When the bladder is empty, the inner lining is wrinkled and lies in folds called:
rugae
Which of the following help to regulate the amount of urine excreted?
a, b and c
antidiuretic hormone
aldosterone
atrial natriuretic hormone
Which of the following is the most distal structure in relation to the kidneys
the urethra
This cells of this organ secrete bile
liver
Which phase of postnatal development extends from the end of infancy to puberty?
Childhood
Which of the following secrete the male sex hormone testosterone?
interstitial cells
Of the main fluid compartments, which varies the least in terms of its volume?
plasma
Plasma and interstitial fluid are part of the:
extracellular fluid compartment
The pH of a solution represents
The concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution
The ph of blood:
7.35-7.45
Which of the following is a buffer?
bicarbonate
True/false The virus that causes German measles (rubella) can easily pass through the placental "barrier
True
The number of nephrons in each kidney is approximately:
one to two million
The uterus is located
Posterior and superior to the urinary bladder
Urine formation begins with:
filtration
Which is MORE important in maintaining homeostasis?
fluid output
The essential organs of reproduction in men and women are called:
gonads
What gland secretes sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize the acidity of the gastric juice that enters the intestines?
Pancreas
True/false Glucose is a normal finding in the urine
False
Arterial blood:
has a higher pH than venous blood
Sodium, calcium, and potassium are important electrolytes and are considered:
cations
Protein digestion begins in the:
stomach
We can lose heat through the skin through all the following processes EXCEPT:
condensation
A condition where dangerous levels of toxins build up in the blood:
uremia
Which of the following are involved in the formation of urine?
a, b, and c
filtration
absorption
secretion
Emphysema reduces the oxygenation of blood, leading to hypoxia and excessive carbon dioxide in the blood. This is an example of
Respiratory acidosis
Which level of the spinal cord is involved with the regulation of micturition?
sacral
True/false If fluid intake equals fluid output, then the total amount of water in the body will not change.
False
Normal adult urine output is approximately
1500-1600 mL/day
The structural and functional unit of the kidney:
nephron
True/false Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus may result in ketoacidosis
True
Protection received by an infant from the mother's breast milk
natural passive immunity
A single layer of squamous epithelial cells lining the inner surface of the circulatory system:
endothelium
True/false Phagocytes are cells that are capable of ingesting foreign substances and organisms for their destruction.
True
True/false Polycythemia may increase blood viscosity (thickness) due to an increase in red blood cells and that may put a person at risk for stroke or myocardial infarction
True
Which one of the following is NOT considered a formed element in the blood?
mast cell
True/false Blood pressure may decrease with increased heart rate because less blood may be pumped into the systemic circulation.
True
Pneumonia involves the:
lower respiratory tract
The hepatic portal circulation routes blood through the
liver
What keeps the trachea from collapsing?
15-20 C-shaped rings of cartilage
Artery that supplies the brain and the meninges:
internal carotid
Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic sign of inflammation?
pallor
True/false The pharyngeal tonsils are also called the adenoids
True
The first branches of the respiratory tree to come off the trachea
primary bronchi
In a hematocrit test
The red blood cells are located at the bottom of the tube
An excessive production of erythrocytes
polycythemia
The amount of air we breathe in and out with a normal breath is referred to as:
tidal volume
The red pigment in blood that carries oxygen
hemoglobin
During vigorous exercise, the greatest change in blood flow occurs in:
skeletal muscle
In the ABO blood typing system, this is the "universal donor"
Type O
Function as exchange vessels for substances such as glucose, oxygen and carbon dioxide:
capillaries