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What is an awareness of ourselves and our environment?


What does consciousness reflect?

what is happening

Our consciousness is one part of what processing that goes on in our minds?

dual processing

Which psychologist spoke of "stream of consciousness"?

William James

What are the three states of consciousness?

1. sleep
2. wake
3. altered states

What is Circadian Rhythm?

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle

At what point in the day is body temperature lower? Why?

• lower at night
• your body is shutting down for the day

What tweaks the circadian clock by activating light-sensitive retinal proteins?

bright light in the morning

What is the pair of grain-of-rice-sized, 20,000 cell clusters in the hypothalamus?

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

What does the Suprachiasmatic nucleus do?

it alerts the pineal gland to produce more or less melatonin

What is melatonin?

a sleep-inducing hormone

How long is each of the sleep cycles?

about 90 minutes

What is REM sleep?

rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring lseep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur

Why is REM sleep known as paradoxical sleep?

the muscles are relaxed, but other body systems are active

What are alpha waves?

relatively slow brain waves produced in a relaxed, awake state

During what stage of sleep may you experience images resembling hallucinations?

Stage 1

What are hallucinations?

false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

What is sleep?

the periodic, natural loss of consciousness

What stage of sleep is characterized by the periodic appearance of sleep spindles?

Stage 2

What are sleep spindles?

bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity

What marks the transition from consciousness to Stage 1 sleep?

slowed breathing and irregular brain waves

When can sleeptalking occur?

during any sleep stage

What is the transitional sleep stage before falling into deep sleep?

Stage 3

Which sleep stage marks the start of delta wave emission?

Stage 3

What are delta waves?

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.

What is NREM sleep?

non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep.

During which two phases of sleep do you spend about half the night?

Stage 3 and Stage 2

What part of the brain blocks the messages of the motor cortex during REM sleep?


During which sleep stage are you essentially paralyzed and cannot easily be awakened?

REM sleep

As night wears on, which two sleep stages grow longer?

REM and Stage 2 sleep

What can sleep patterns by influenced by?

• genetics
• cultural influences

True or False: some people thrive with fewer than 6 hours of sleep per night


How does sleep help people recuperate?

it helps restore and repair the brain

What are free radicals?

molecules toxic to neurons

What produces free radicals?

things with high waking metabolisms

How does sleep make memories?

sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories of a day's experiences

True or False: those who sleep more do not have an advantage in achieving more over those who sleep less.


What does the pituitary gland do during deep sleep?

release growth hormone

What is insomnia?

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

What are the most common quick fixes for true insomnia? Are they helpful or harmful?

• sleeping pills and alcohol
• harmful-- they reduce REM sleep

What is narcolepsy?

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks

What sleep stage do narcoleptics uncontrollably lapse directly into?

REM sleep

What neurotransmitter is absent in the hypothalamic nerve centers of narcoleptics?


What is sleep apnea?

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

What sleep disorder includes symptoms of snoring, gasping for air while sleeping, obesity, and high blood pressure?

sleep apnea

What sleep disorder's symptoms include not being able to sleep and headaches?


What sleep disorder's symptoms include excessive daytime sleepiness, hallucinations, and sleep paralysis?


What are night terrors?

sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified, occurring during Stage 4 sleep

Which group of people is most prone to sleepwalking and sleeptalking?


Who is mostly targeted by night terrors?


What sleep disorder's symptoms include sitting up and walking around while sleeping, talking incoherently while asleep, and appearing terrified?

night terrors

Who has the lengthiest and deepest Stage 4 sleep?

young children

What are known as "hallucinations of the sleeping mind"?

REM dreams

What is manifest content?

the remembered story line of a dream

Who came up with the concepts of manifest content and latent content?

Sigmund Freud

True or False: Outside sensory stimuli can intrude on our dreams.


What is a dream?

a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind.

What is REM rebound?

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation

What happens to the amount you sleep as you age?

you spend less time sleeping

What was Freud's wish-fulfillment?

the idea that dreams provide psychic safety value-expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings

What is information processing?

it helps us sort out the day's events and consolidate memories

What is physiological function?

regular brain stimulation from REM sleep that may help develop and preserve neural pathways

What is activation synthesis?

when REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our brain weaves into stories

What is cognitive development?

a reflection of dreamers' knowledge and understanding

What is hypnosis?

a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

Under what circumstances can people be hypnotized?

if they are willing and believing to be hypnotized

What is true of the relationship between hypnosis and memory recollection?

more often than not, hypnosis results in the planting of false memories rather then the recovery of real memories

What is the posthypnotic suggestion?

a suggestion made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized

What is posthypnotic suggestion used by clinicians to control?

undesirable behavior

How is hypnosis similar to the placebo effect?

if you believe in it, it can help alleviate pain as a placebo does

What is dissociation?

a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others

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