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What is Circadian Rhythm?
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
At what point in the day is body temperature lower? Why?
• lower at night
• your body is shutting down for the day
What tweaks the circadian clock by activating light-sensitive retinal proteins?
bright light in the morning
What is the pair of grain-of-rice-sized, 20,000 cell clusters in the hypothalamus?
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
What does the Suprachiasmatic nucleus do?
it alerts the pineal gland to produce more or less melatonin
What is REM sleep?
rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring lseep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur
Why is REM sleep known as paradoxical sleep?
the muscles are relaxed, but other body systems are active
What are hallucinations?
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
What marks the transition from consciousness to Stage 1 sleep?
slowed breathing and irregular brain waves
What is NREM sleep?
non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep.
How does sleep make memories?
sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories of a day's experiences
True or False: those who sleep more do not have an advantage in achieving more over those who sleep less.
What are the most common quick fixes for true insomnia? Are they helpful or harmful?
• sleeping pills and alcohol
• harmful-- they reduce REM sleep
What is sleep apnea?
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
What sleep disorder includes symptoms of snoring, gasping for air while sleeping, obesity, and high blood pressure?
What sleep disorder's symptoms include excessive daytime sleepiness, hallucinations, and sleep paralysis?
What are night terrors?
sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified, occurring during Stage 4 sleep
What sleep disorder's symptoms include sitting up and walking around while sleeping, talking incoherently while asleep, and appearing terrified?
What is a dream?
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind.
What was Freud's wish-fulfillment?
the idea that dreams provide psychic safety value-expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings
What is physiological function?
regular brain stimulation from REM sleep that may help develop and preserve neural pathways
What is activation synthesis?
when REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our brain weaves into stories
What is hypnosis?
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
Under what circumstances can people be hypnotized?
if they are willing and believing to be hypnotized
What is true of the relationship between hypnosis and memory recollection?
more often than not, hypnosis results in the planting of false memories rather then the recovery of real memories
What is the posthypnotic suggestion?
a suggestion made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized
How is hypnosis similar to the placebo effect?
if you believe in it, it can help alleviate pain as a placebo does
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