Biology: Organelles

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Robert Hooke
First person to observe dead cells and name them in 1665.
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
First person to observe living organisms under microscope in 1674.
Schleiden
Determined that plants are made of cells.
Schwann
Determined that animals are made of cells.
Rudolph Virchow
Determined that cells must come from pre-existing cells an that they do not spontaneously generate.
Cell Theory
1. All living things are made of cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
Prokaryotic Cell
-Only bacteria
-Doesn't have a nucleus
-Smaller than Eukaryotic
-Free-floating DNA
-Unicellular
Eukaryotic Cell
-Everything except for bacteria
-Has a nucleus(DNA inside)
-Has organelles
-Bigger than Prokaryotic
-Multicellular or Single Celled
Centrioles
Shaped like cylinders and are made of tiny tubes in a circle. They are only found in animal cells. Function in cell division and once they divide they move. Help form cilia and flagella. Surrounded by centrosome. 9 groups of 3 arrangement of the protein fibers.
Lysosomes
"Suicide Sacks." Produced by the golgi body and consist of a single membrane. Contains digestive enzymes and destroys the bacteria in the white blood cells. Also, breaks down old cell parts.
Chloroplasts
Carries out photosynthesis that stores energy from sunlight as chemical energy for the plant. Has a double membrane. Has its own ribosomes and DNA.
Mitochondrion
The powerhouse of the cell. Produces chemical energy that is used by the cell. The site of respiration. Has a double membrane. Inner membrane is ruffled with a very large surface. Has its own ribosomes and DNA.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Acts as a pathway throughout the cytoplasm. Runs from the cell membrane to the nuclear membrane and throughout the rest of the cell. Produces lipids and has NO ribosomes. It is transparent. Helps in the production of proteins and other molecules.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
A series of double membranes that loop back and forth between the cell membrane and the nucleus. It is transparent. Has ribosomes attached to it. Helps in the production of proteins and other molecules.
Cell Membrane
Controls everything that enters and leaves the cell. In multicellular organisms it allows self recognition.
Nucleus
The headquarters of the cell. Only located in Eukaryotic Cells. Controls all cell activity.
Golgi Apparatus
Responsible for packaging proteins for the cell. Proteins pass into the cisternae that are the main part of the golgi body.They are then squeezed into little blebs which drift off into the cytoplasm.
Cytoplasm
A jelly-like material that contains the building blocks needed for life.
Vacuole
An organelle that is used to store materials such as water, food or enzymes.
Vesicle
An organelle that contains materials, keeping them separate from the rest of the cytoplasm. Transports materials within the cell.
Ribosome
An organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins.
Nucleolus
A spot of knotted chromatin. Ribosomes are assembled here.
Central Vacuole
A single, large fluid-like sac that takes up most of the space inside the cell. Only in plant cells. Stores food, water or waste.
Cell Wall
Protects the cell and gives it support and shape to a cell in plants, algae, most bacteria and fungi.
Cytoskeleton
The framework of a cell. it gives the cell shape, support and strength.
Organelles
A small part that carries out a specific job in a cell
Grana
The stacks of disc like structures in chloroplasts.
Thylakoid Membrane
The membranes connecting the double membrane in chloroplasts
Aerobic Respiration
What type of respiration occurs in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion?
Cristae
The ruffles in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.
Nuclear Membrane
Has many pores. Surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus.
Chromosomes
The thick ropy strands in the nucleus. DNA in its active form. Combination of DNA and histone proteins. Stores information needed for the manufacture of proteins.
Cilia
Small, numerous hairlike extensions off of the cell membrane. In unicellular cells their function is locomotion. In multicellular cells their job is the move fluid past the cell.
Flagella
Few, large hairlike extensions off of the cell membrane. In unicellular cells their function is locomotion. In multicellular cells their job is the move fluid past the cell.