34 terms

IB BIOLOGY: Cells (Cell Theory and Prokaryotic Cells)

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cell theory
states that every living organism is composed of cells; the cell is the basic unit of life; and new cells must arise from existing cells
van Leeuwenhoek
used the first microscope and identified cells as "animalcules", or 'small animals'
Hooke
using a cork, he identified cells and was the first person to coin the term "cells" because they appeared to replicate prison compartments
Brown
identified and published that plant cells nuclei are important to viability- proving there is organelle(s) in the cell
Schleiden
identified that all plants are made up of cells or cell products
Schwann
stated that all animal tissue is also made up of cells- along with Schleiden is credited for formulating cell theory
Virchow
credited with adding the point about cell division to cell theory- he supposedly took the idea from Robert Remak
light microscope
commonly used optical devices when working with things down to 1µm (1 micrometer)
transmission electron microscope
an optical device in which an electron beam is magnified by electromagnetic lenses, an image is detected by a phosphor screen, and the image is cross sectional
scanning electron microscope
an optical device in which an electron beam creates an indirect image as the electron beam bounces off the gold-plated specimen
multicellularity
the characteristic of certain organisms to contain more than one cell which allows for specialization and emergent properties
specialization
a characteristic of multicellular organisms where many cells are working together and performing various functions in order to comprise one organism and its capabilities
emergent properties (emergent)
with multicellularity, cells begin to show that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts; the collection of the system possesses traits that the individual parts do not
embryonic stem cells
derived from blastocysts and are totipotent or pluripotent; they can become any type of cell for an organism
totipotent
the capability of some immature stem cells to give rise to any type of cell
pluripotent
refers to the characteristic of some stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into any fetal or adult cell; they come from totipotent cells
adult stem cells
stem cells do not simply disappear after an organism's infantile state, they are present in adulthood as well as in infancy
multipotent
having the ability to differentiate into a limited number of types of cells in a close cell family; cannot divide
unipotent
refers to cells that can only become one type of cell; are able to divide unlike their successors
prokaryotic
characterized by a lack of a true nucleus and other cell compartments; possess a single loop of DNA in a nucleoid region and include cytoplasmic structures
domain
the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in which are three groupings: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
Archaea
likely to be the eukaryotic precursor; include extremophiles
extremophiles
archaeaic organisms that inhabit extreme environmental conditions (include thermoacidophiles, halophiles, and methanogens)
Bacteria
has more members than Archaea and likely includes the more familiar prokaryotes; they are metabolically diverse organisms
Escherichia Coli (E. Coli)
a 'typical' prokaryote in which the cell envelope includes the plasma membrane and cell wall
plasma membrane
a prokaryotic structure that maintains cell integrity and keeps insides in and outsides out
cell wall
a cellular structure in prokaryotes that provides protection, structure, and identification (the wall is lacking in some prokaryotes)
cytoplasm
a part of the cell which suspends the cells' contents and allows for internal transport
pilus
the prokaryotic structure that has an adhesion to surfaces and is used in material exchange
flagellum
prokaryotic cellular structure that gives the cell its motility, its ability to move spontaneously and actively while consuming energy
ribosome
the prokaryotic structure that is used for protein synthesis and DNA translation (eukaryotic ribosomes are far larger than prokaryotic ribosomes)
nucleoid
a region of the prokaryotic cell that contains naked DNA and is replaced by a nucleus in eukaryotes
binary fission
the process of prokaryotic cell division; since prokaryotes lack a nucleus, they cannot complete mitosis
stromatolite
refers to the earliest of fossils, which were prokaryotic, from around 3.5 billion years ago