62 terms

Interwar Period 1920s

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Fourteen Points
Wilson's main goals for the Paris Peace Conference. He attempted to address the causes of the war and the countries affected by the war. 1/18
Big 4
British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, French Premier Georges Clemenceau, and Premier Vittorio Orlando of Italy
Colonel Edward House
Wilson's most trusted adviser and friend who came with him to the Paris Peace Conference. Wilson was furious when he left the conference for a short trip, Wilson left him in charge, and he gave up many of the 14 points to British and French pressure.
Paris Peace Conference
Negotiations between countries after WWI ended. Decided on new borders for countries. Essentially a global government while in session. (Began 1/18/19)
Self-Determination
The idea that a people should be able to create their own state, government and allegiances. What Wilson wanted for many of the colonies that was not entirely reasonable.
League of Nations
A united group of leaders of countries to help stop future wars before they start. The 14th point of Wilson's 14 Points Plan.
Reparations
The money, territory, and other items the Allies demanded from Germany in order for Germany to make amends with the Allies for "causing" the war. Germany had to pay the Allies 269 billion marks and lost 13% of its territory.
Collective Security
The agreement of multiple countries in an alliance to ensure each other's security.
War Guilt Clause
The piece of the Treaty of Versailles that stated that Germany was solely responsible for WWI (Article 231).
Diktat
Germany called the Treaty of Versailles this because it was forced on them.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty that ended the war between Russia and Germany. Negotiated by the Bolsheviks. Russia lost Ukraine, Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland and Finland. Lost 32% of Arab lands, 26% of railroads, 33% of factories and 75% of coal mines. They also had to supply bread to the Central Powers and pay reparations. (3/3/18)
Bolshevism
The beliefs of a communist faction in Russia that refused to cooperate with the Provisional Government and eventually overthrew the government on 11/7/17.
Vladimir Lenin
Russian leader of the Bolsheviks who was smart and knew how to work a crowd. He called for "Peace, Land, and Bread" and the people followed. He transformed Russia into the Soviet Union.
Joseph Stalin
Leader of the USSR from the mid-1920s until he died in 1953.
Leon Trotsky
The leader of the red army of the Bolshevik government who reorganized the army when the Whites (an anti-Bolshevik group) attacked so that the soldiers were focused on learning fighting tactics rather than Marxist ideals.
The Red Army
The army of the Bolsheviks, led by Leon Trotsky.
Karl I
The last emperor of Austria-Hungary, abdicated in 11/11/18.
Jan Paderewski
The Prime Minister of Poland, a Polish activist. He represented Poland at the Paris Peace Conference. He was crucial in getting an independent Poland on President Wilson's 14 Points.
Josef Pilsudski
Polish statesman who was responsible for the creation of the Second Republic of Poland and fought for the Polish Corridor.
Polish Corridor
A strip of land that connected Poland to the Baltic Sea, but also isolated East Prussia from the rest of Germany.
Polish-Soviet War
Poland and Ukraine attacked the USSR, but the USSR stopped the invasion. (1919-1921)
Treaty of Riga
Ended the Polish-Soviet War. Poland made territorial gains, and communism was stopped. (3/18/21)
Bela Kun
A Hungarian communist who led the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.
Carthaginian Peace
An extremely harsh type of peace treaty that completely crushes the losers.
Article X
The part of the Treaty of Versailles that stated that signatories and/or members of the League of Nations would need to protect each other. This was one aspect that made the American Senators reluctant to sign the treaty. (Final defeat of treaty in the U.S. on 3/19/20)
Little Entente
An alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of common defense against Hungarian revision and the prevention of a Habsburg restoration. France supported the alliance by signing treaties with each member country.
Irredentism
A movement intending to reclaim a lost territory justified by real or imagined national, historic, or ethnic connections to the area.
Teschen
The command center for the Austro-Hungarian army and navy during the war. In 1920, it was divided between Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Faisal Ibn Hussein
Led the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire, Assisted Britain and then became king of Syria.
Young Turks
Group of Turkish liberals that wanted to radically modernize Turkey. In their revolution in 1908, they created an electoral system to replace the monarchy.
Armistice of Mudros
Armistice signed by Britain and the Ottoman Empire upon the HMS Agamemnon on October 30th, 1918.
Zionism
Movement for the Jewish reclamation of of Israel, led by Chaim Weizmann.
Palestine
The Treaty of Sèvres gave this country to Great Britain, but there were increasing amounts of Zionism and Arab resistance.
Sykes-Picot Agreement
5/19/16 Arab lands under the rule of the Ottoman empire into GB and Frances spheres of influence
Balfour Declaration
Document in which Britain declared its support for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland on November 17, 1916.
T. E. Lawrence
An officer during the 1916 Arab revolt who brought over weapons and money which kept the revolt alive. He led the Arab delegation to the Paris Peace Conference.
King-Crane Commission
Inter-Allied commission of American officers in Israel who found that most people were against Zionism and thought that the Middle East needed independence
Mustafa Kemal
President of Turkey, member of the young turks
Chaim Weizmann
The most important leader of the Zionist movement
Ibn al Saud
Ousted Hussein bin Ali in 1924 and established Saudi Arabia.
Reza Shah Pahlavi
Took over Persia and created the new state of Iran in 1925 in the midst of the Zionist movement
Treaty of Versailles
Signed (06/28/1919) in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles (symbolic). Germany lost Alsace-Lorraine, Polish Corridor, Saar, and foreign investment. Forced to have 100,000 man army, no conscription, reduced navy, and have Rhineland demilitarized.
Treaty of St. Germain
Signed (09/10/1919). Ended Austria Hungary, created Austria, Czech, territory divided. Minimal military, unification with Germany (Anschluss) forbidden.
Treaty of Trianon
Signed (06/04/1920). Hungary shrank 72%, minimal military, and Romania expanded.
Treaty of Neuilly
Signed (11/27/1919). Bulgaria lost territory and paid reparations.
Treaty of Sèvres / Lausanne
Signed (08/10/1920). Syria and Lebanon to France, Palestine and Mesopotamia to Great Britain. Arabia independent and Dardanelles under international control. Turkey created, demilitarized, and paid reparations, Spheres of influence. Armenia created and no Kurdistan.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Proposed "Reservations" to ratify Treaty of Versailles. He demanded Congressional control of declarations of war. As a result the U.S. never joined the League of Nations.
Irreconcilables
The people of Congress who were opposed to the Treaty of Versailles. They fought for the ratification of the treaty. They succeeded, and the U.S. never ratified the treaty and never joined the League of Nations.
Washington Naval Conference
(11/12/1921) Limited success in which U.S., Great Britain, and Japan met to deal with preventing another Naval Arms Race.
Four Power Treaty
U.S., France, Great Britain, and Japan would have a mutual consultation if East Asian crisis arose.
Five Power Treaty
5-5-3-1-1, Ship size limits, No base expansion. (Britain, U.S. Japan, Italy, and France)
Nine Power Treaty
Equal access in China, guarantee China's territory.
Weimar Republic
Unstable German government between 1919 and 1933 which faced problems with hyperinflation, paramilitaries, and the Allied Powers.
Freikorps
Paramilitary groups who suppressed revolutions.
Hyperinflation
Germany over-issued currency and destroyed economy.
Ruhr Crisis
Franco-Belgian force occupied Ruhr Valley (01/11/1923)- Forcible Extraction. German strikes, passive resistance, sabotage- war fears.
Dawes Plan
(08/1924) Debt refinanced, U.S. loans/supervision, Germany stabilized.
Treaty of Rapallo
German-Soviet diplomatic relation (04/1922). Secret German training and rearmament in USSR- Both benefit.
Locarno Treaty
Signed in 1925 and negotiated by Stresemann. German western borders guaranteed. Undermined "Cordon Sanitaire"- Poland and Czechoslovakia, and Germany in League of Nation. Eastern borders not fixed, could be changed. "Spirit of Locarno"- War finally settled, real but exaggerated.
Gustav Stresemann
German politician during the Weimar Republic. Negotiated the Locarno Treaty and persuaded the French to pull back from the Ruhr.
Young Plan
(1929) Reduced and rescheduled reparations for Germany.
A, B, C Mandates
Class "A" former turkish provinces (Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine) Class "B" former German ruled African colonies (Tanganyika, part of Togoland, and the Cameroons, Ruanda-Urundi) Class "C" former German held territories (South West Africa, New Guinea, Western Samoa, Islands North of the equator in the Western Pacific and Nauru)
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