54 terms

Scott Foresman, Grade 4, Chapter 6 science

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The amount of the Earth's surface that is covered in water
Ocean
Where is most of the Earth's water found?
solid (ice), liquid, gas
What are the three states of water?
Places where evaporation happens slowly or where fresh water is added to ocean
Where is ocean water less salty?
It contains salt from land
Why is the ocean's water salty?
underground and in glaciers, ice caps, streams, lakes and rivers
Where is fresh water on Earth found?
Very salty because water evaporates quickly out of the sea because of the heat
How much salt would there be in water near a very hot, dry area? Why?
5 oceans
Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, Arctic
97%
The amount of the Earth's water that is in the oceans and seas
2%
The amount of the Earth's water that is in glaciers and polar ice caps
1%
The amount of the Earth's water that is in rivers and lakes
The Water Cycle
The never-ending movement of water from the Earth's surface to its atmosphere
Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation
What are the parts of the water cycle process?
evaporation
the process of changing water into water vapor
condensation
the process of water vapor becoming liquid water when it cools
precipitation
any form of water that falls to the earth
Condensation takes place. Clouds are made of droplets or ice crystals that can be seen
At what stage of water cycle do clouds form? Why?
Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gases
The Earth's atmosphere is made up of what?
Sun's energy
What powers the water cycle?
Storage
The water from precipitation over land sinks into soil and underground pores in rock
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The amount of the Earth's air that is nitrogen
air pressure
Gravity pulling air towards Earth's surface causes?
Higher altitudes
Where is air pressure less?
wind
formed by air moving from a place with high pressure to a place with low pressure
seabreeze
Wind that blows from sea to land is?
air mass
a huge body of air that has nearly the same temperature and humidity
Cirrus, altostratus, cumulus, cumulonimbus, stratus
What are the 5 types of clouds?
humidity
the amount of water vapor in the air
front
the area where two air masses meet; the boundary which 2 different air masses touch each other
cold front
forms when a moving cold air mass bumps into a warm air mass; often bring strong winds and brief, heavy precipitation
warm front
forms when a warm air mass runs into a cold air mass that is moving more slowly; usually brings steady, long-lasting precipitation
clouds
made up of tiny water droplets and ice crystals
according to their shape and altitude
How are clouds named?
alto clouds
clouds that are very high
nimbo clouds
clouds that are rain-bearing
cumulus clouds
clouds that are thick, white, and puffy, like piles of cotton
stratus clouds
clouds that are flat layers of clouds that form close to the Earth's surface
rain or snow will fall
what type of weather can you expect when you see stratus clouds?
cirrus clouds
clouds that are feathery and form high in the Earth's atmosphere when water vapor turns into tiny crystals of ice
weather
the day to day changes in temperature, winds, precipitation, and other conditions
meteorologists
scientists who studies and measure weather conditions
thermometer, barometer, anemometer, and wind vane
What instruments do meteorologists use?
barometer
the tool used to measure air pressure in inches
Evangelista Torricelli
invented the mercury barometer; the first tool to measure air pressure
low air pressure
weather is often damp and cloudy
high air pressure
weather is usually dry and clear
anemometer
the tool used to measure wind speed
both measure wind
How are anemometer and wind vane alike?
wind vane
shows the direction from which the wind is blowing
rain gauge
tool used to measure rainfall
hygrometer
tool used to measure humidity
weather forecast
prediction of what the weather will be like for the next few days
record and analyze temperature, air pressure, wind and precipitation
what do forecasters do to track and predict weather?
to show large amounts of information in small amount of space
why are symbols used on a weather map?

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