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cause: Defeat at battle of Long Island

effect: winter at valley forge

cause: Magna carta, English Bill of rights

effect: Declaration of Independence

cause : failures of the Articles of Confederation

effect: Constituional Convention


voting rights


supported the consitution


opposed the constitution

Shay's rebellion

showed that the U.S. needed a stronger central gov't

3/5 compromise

dealt with the issue of counting slaves as population

great compromise

was a compromise of the New jersey and Virginia Plan


shared power between the central and state government

Philadelphia PA

location of the Constitutional convention

New Jersey plan

favored all states having an equal # of votes in congress

Virginia plan

favored states' repensentation in congress to be based on population

Articles of Confederation

didn't have the power to tax or issue a standard currency

Northwest Ordinance

Add-A-State plan, organized western land or settlement


official approval


increased prices for goods - reduced value of money


people who owe $


people who loan $

legislative branch

lawmaking branch of gov't

judicial branch

responsible for interpreting laws

executive branch

president & cabinet help run the gov't

Federalist papers

essays written by Hamilton, Madison & Jay in support of the passage of the constitution


official changes to the constitution

Bill of Rights

first ten amendments that afford rights to individuals

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