Terms in this set (195)
Ophthalmic surgery is considered a specialty of what type of surgery?
Colibri, non toothed, Desmarres chalazion, and Bishop-Harmon iris are the names of what type of ophthalmic surgery?
Forceps that holds edges of corneal and scleral incisions
Forceps that hold skin edges in eyelid procedures and for holding the connective for suturing
Forceps used for grasping and holding delicate eye tissue
Bishop-Harmon iris forceps
Forceps for grasping the lower eyelid and isolating the chaplain to facilitate excisions
Desmarres Chalazion Forceps
Two types of Ophthalmic needle holders
Castroviejo and Microsurgical needle holders
Needle holders that are locking or non locking
Castroviejo Needle holders
Needles holders that are available with various shaped tips and is a locking needle holder.
Microsurgical needle holder
What type of Ophthalmic instrument has names Graefe, Keratomes, Diamond, Oscillating, and Beaver
Type of knife that is available in various angles and is disposable
Type of knife broken from razor blades and placed in holders
What is the most common beaver blade used?
#69 beaver blade
Which size knife blade is mostly used in ophthalmic surgery?
Which type of Ophthalmic instruments have the name Scleral, Kilner, Desmarres, and Iris?
Hooks and Retractors
Which type of hook is a microscopic skin hook for scleral retraction?
Which type of hook is used mostly for reconstructive surgery?
Which type of Ophthalmic instrument has the names Westcott, Small spring, and McPherson-Vannas?
Which type of scissor is used most often?
Which type of scissors is useful in strabismus and conductive operations?
Westcott scissors, spring-action micro scissors
Which type of scissor is used for intraocular use?
What type of probe is used to probe the Lacrimal duct?
What is used in surgical treatment of cataracts?
What uses ultrasonic energy to fragment the hard lens material, which then can be aspirated from the eye?
What is used in all posterior chamber surgeries?
What provides light, suction, diathermy, and intraoperative access to the surgeon?
Which system may be combined with phacoemusification units?
Which type of laser is used for photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy?
Argon OR Nd:YAG Laser
What is used in treatment of retinal detachment?
What unit uses localized temperature to dal tears and holes much as a diathermy unit; CO2 gas passed under pressure through flexible tubes to the tip of a probe
What type of gloves should you wear during Ophthalmic surgery?
Suture needle available with plain collagen and polyglactin?
Round Bodied Suture needle
Which type of suture needle would you use for Conjuctival closure?
Round Bodied Suture needle
Which type of needle initially cuts like a cutting needle and has minimal trauma?
Round bodied with cutting tip (tapered cut)
What type of suture needle would you use for a Lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa?
Round bodied with cutting tip (tapered cut)
Which type of needle has a Triangular needle with a third cutting edge on the outside of the curvature?
Reverse cutting (micro point)
Which type of needle eliminates the possibility of outward tearing while suturing?
Reverse cutting (micro point)
What needle is a fine needle with a thin flat profile?
Which type of needle would you use on a Corneal and corneoscleral suture?
Which type of needle is similar to the spatula, and is used for scleral passage in strabismus correction, and retinal detachment repair?
What does BBS stand for?
Balances salt solution
To protect sterility, what type of draping is required?
Adhesive-backed aperture drapes
How would you perform a skin prep for an ophthalmic procedure?
From hairline to inferior mandibular border and from the anterior auricular border ago beyond the midline.
What type of gland is the meibomian glands?
What do the meibomian glands secrete? What does it turn into?
Sebum from their ducts into tears
What gland is located on the posterior margin and embedded in the tarsal plate of each eyelid?
What is a small lump on the inner or outer surface of the eyelid?
What is a Chalazion caused by?
an inflammatory reaction to material trapped inside a meibomian gland
What two types of incisional approaches are done to take care of a Chalazion?
Transcutaneous or Transconjuctival
What position is a Surgical Repair of Chalazion done in?
What blade is used to make the incision in a Surgical repair of the Chalazion?
No. 11 or No. 15
What muscle is incised to expose the meibomian gland?
What wound classification is a Surgical repair of Chalazion?
Class III: Contaminated
What do the layers of the eyelids consist of?
Skin, subcutaneous, orbicular is iris muscle, tarsal plates, and palpebral conjuctiva.
What are the two tendons located in the eyelid?
medial and lateral canthus tendons
What does the medial canthus contain?
The lacrimal drainage ducts and medical can thus tendon.
What is Entropion?
Abnormal inversion of the lower lid margins
What does Entropion cause?
It causes eyelashes to rub against the cornea
Two types of Entropion
Involutional and Congenital
The most common type of Entropion it occurs when the canthal tendons retain their normal rigidity but the apposition of the lid to the globe has changed due to atrophy of the orbital fat, resulting in the inversion of the lower eyelid
The type of Entropion that is due to hypertrophy of the oculi muscle, which causes the eyelid margin to e pushed superiorly and against the globe
What position is the Surgical repair of the Entropion done in?
Where is the first incision made in a Surgical Repair of Entropion?
the lateral canthus
What is the lateral canthotomy made with in the surgical repair of the Entropion?
a straight tenotomy scissors.
What type of suture is the tarsus of the eyelid reattached to the lateral canthal tendon with during a repair of the Entropion?
4-0 to 5-0 nonabsorbable suture.
What is a thin, circular membrane suspended in the aqueous humor between the cornea and crystallin lens?
What is the skin incision closed with during a repair of a the Entropion?
6-0 or 7-0 nonabsorbable suture.
What ligament is the ciliary body connected to the cornea with?
Which muscle contracts and relaxes to regulate the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil?
The involuntary circular smooth muscle
What space is located between the cornea and the iris?
The anterior chamber
What flows through the space between the cornea and iris to provide nourishment to the tissues of the eye and maintain the shape of the eye
Where does the Aqueous humor exit the anterior chamber?
Through the canal of Schlemm and the trabecular meshwork
What is an Iridectomy?
The removal of a section of iris tissue
What is done to reestablish communication between the anterior and posterior chambers, relieving pupillary block, and to reestablish the outflow of aqueous humor through the Schlemm canal?
What are three types of iridectomy procedures performed?
peripheral, radial, and sector
What procedure is often performed along with a Trabeculectomy?
What can a laser iridectomy be perfumed to treat?
angle closure glaucoma
Increased intraocular pressure and anterior uveitis are common side effects of what?
What does IOP stand for?
What procedure would you use a No. 57 beaver blade on?
What is 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)
Paper that indicates conceal tear that will stain eye
What position is a Iridectomy performed in?
Supine with head on headrest
What is a retrobular block?
Anesthesia for procedures to block both sensory and motor neuron function.
Where would a retrobular block be injected?
Around the optic nerve with a combination of lidocaine HCl and bupivicaine, both without epinephrine.
What do you measure an IOP with?
What do you place in the superior rectus muscle for traction in an Iridectomy?
During an Iridectomy the conjunctive is incised using which two instruments?
Colibri forceps and knife
The Tenon's capsule is deserted free from the sclera with forceps and what type of scissors?
To decrease post operative fibrosis what would the surgeon use?
a sponge soaked in the chemotherapeutic agent 5-FU and mitomycin
Why should 5-FU and mitomycin disposed of as hazardous waste?
They are antimetabolites that are toxic
During an Iridectomy why would the surgeon use a #57 beaver blade?
to remove blood clots from the limbus
In an iridectomy, what is the corneal incision closed with?
In an iridectomy, what is the scleral flap closed with?
interuppted 10-0 nylon
In an iridectomy, what is the Tenon capsule-conjuctival flap closed with?
What is the wound classification of an Iridectomy?
Class I: Clean
The muscle of the eye that comes from the bone of the orbit and is movable?
Where do the tendons of the eyes attach?
Outer surface of the eye
Which muscle rotates the eye upward and medially?
Which muscle rotates the eye downward and medially?
Which muscle rotate the eye medially?
Which muscle rotate the eye laterally?
Which muscle rotates the eye downward and laterally?
Which muscle rotates the eye upward and laterally?
Which ligaments limit the movement of the lateral and medial rectus?
The lateral and medial check ligaments
What is a strabismus?
a misalignment or deviation of the eyes
"cross-eyed" (esotropia), "Wall eyes" (exotropia), and "Lazy eyes" (amblyopic) are known as what
Esotropia is knowns as what?
Exotropia is known as what?
Amblyopic is known as what?
For a strabismus correction, what position would the patient be in?
Supine with head on headrest
What size silk traction sutures are places around the superior and inferior rectus muscles at the 12- and 6-o'clock position?
For a Strabismus correction what type of incision is made from the limbus level with the upper border of the affected muscle?
A second radial incision is made toward what in a Strabismus correction?
The lower border of the muscle
For strabismus correction, what is the conjunctive closed with?
6-0 absorbable or 8-0 silk sutures with a needle of surgeons choice
What is the wound classification for a Strabismus correction?
Class I: Clean
After the effects of anesthesia have worn off what type of drops are placed into the patients conjunctival sac with a Strabismus correction?
What makes up the inner tunic?
The outer surface of the retina is in contact with what?
The inner surface of the retina is in contact with what?
Posteriorly the retina is continuous with what nerve?
The optic nerve
Anteriorly the retina portion extends to where?
The ciliary body
The sensory layer of the eye consists of two photoreceptors, what are they called?
Rods and Cones
What do rods allow?
They allow for seeing shades of gray in dim lights and general shapes or outlines.
What do cones provide?
They provide color vision and ability to see sharp images.
What is the yellow structure located in the middle region of the retina?
What does the central fovea contain?
It contains only cones
What is located medial to the central fovea? What does it contain?
optic nerve; it contains no rods or cones
What happens when the liquid in the vitreous cavity passes through a retinal tear, separating the retina from the choroid?
What is lost when the retina becomes detached?
What is the positioning for a Scleral buckle?
Supine with donut
For a scleral buckle what type of incision is used?
What type of scissors are used to separate the conductive from the sclera?
What do you use to seal tears?
Cryoprobe or Diathermy
What is the preferred way to seal tears?
What is a explant?
A silicone sponge or band
What do you suture an explant in with?
a double armed 5-0 non absorbable polyester suture on a spatulated needle
What are the gases that may be injected to create pressure on the retina while sub retinal fluid is reabsorbed and scars form?
C3F8 and SF8
What type of antibiotic may be injected in a scleral buckle?
20 mg of gentamicin sub conjunctively
The lacrimal system consists of the lacrimal gland, which secretes what?
What do tears keep moist?
The conjunctive and excretory ducts
Where do the excretory ducts transport fluids to?
The eye surface
What carries the fluids away from the eye surface?
The lacrimal canals into the lacrimal sac along the nasolacrimal duct into the cavity of the nose
Where is the lacrimal gland located?
within the upper eyelid by the outer angle of the orbit and inner side of the external angular process of the frontal bone
How many ducts exit the lacrimal gland and run at an angle beneath the mucous membrane?
six to twelve ducts
Thelacrimal canals are located at what orfices?
What are the two lacrimal canals?
Superior and inferior canaliculi
When is a DCR performed?
When the nasolacrimal duct is obstructed by fibrous tissue or bone and has become impermeable to establish a new communication pathway between the lacrimal sac and the nose
What would you use 4% cocaine for?
Lidocaine2% with epinephrine is injected at the beginning of what crest in a DCR?
After the insertion of the nasal speculum where is lidocaine also injected?
Which instrument helps acheive the anterior lacrimal crest to the entrance of the nasolacrimal duct
In a DCR, what is one way bleeding can be controlled?
What is the excision of an eye due to malignant neoplasm, penetrating wounds , or when the eye has been so extensively damaged that no vision can be regained?
What allows the retention of the shrunken remnants of the eye. It eliminates corneal sensitivity and allows the patient to wear a prosthetic eye that will have mobility and a better cosmetic result.
What two types of implants are used in Enucleation?
Ocular and Hydroxyapatite
During an Enucleation how is the conunctive divided?
Around the cornea with sharp and blunt dissection
What is placed in the cul-de-sac after the eye has been removed in a Enucleation?
A socket conformer
What would make an Enucleation Class III?
fresh would from clean source
What would make an enucleation A Class IV?
Dirty-infected, traumatic wound from dirty source or due to delayed treatment, presence of a foreign body
During a Keratoplasy what is the only part replaced of the cornea?
The central part of the cornea is replaced
What is placed on the cornea and is used to make the corneal cut around the cornea and into the anterior chamber?
What are the two methods of cataract extraction commonly used?
Extracapsular and intracapsular cataract extraction
What is a transparent, biconvex structure that is situated behind the pupil anterior to the vitreous body?
What is encircled by the ciliary precesses and encapsulated in a transparent, elastic, delicate membrane
What is the central points of the anterior and posterior surface of the lens
anterior and posterior lens
What is the word that is used to describe a lens that has become opaque
What is a condition affecting the eye, which is not a disease
What can cataracts eventually lead to?
What type of IOL is implanted without removing the eyes natural lens
What is Phacoemulsification
A variation of the irrigation aspiration technique
What involves a large incision and the entire capsule is removed, sutureing is required for closing the incsion
An extraction is performed through a small incision and only the lens is removed; incision is self=sealing with no sutures required
What does IOL stand for?
Intraocular lens implant
What type of suture is placed for manipulation of the globe?
The superior rectus bridle suture
What is a corneal incision followed with what?
Iridotomy or iridectomy
Which is bigger, the posterior cavity of the eye of the anterior cavity?
Which membraine encloses the whole vitreous humor?
During a vitrectomy which incision is made into the globe?
What is performed to remove the blood so the surgeon can view whether there is a detachment?
Prism vitrectomy lens are available in what degrees
In Vitrectomy what is a light source, handpiece,cable, provides fiberoptic microillumination for intraocular use
What two types of endocoagulator is there
bipolar or wetfield
Which instrument with witch the vitreous is cut and aspirated, variable cut and aspiration rates are controlled from the main panel
An ultrasonic instrument with aspiration used to remove cloudy lens, which obstruct the view of the retina
What does MPC stand for
What type of micro scissors used to cut and peel membranes from the retina and has aspiration capability
Two types of Intraocular gases?
C3F8 or SF6
Used instead of gas to keep retina attached postoperatively
A technique that uses a laster to treat intraocular structures. This modality is often used to treat retinal tears in the setting of retinal detachment and if frequently used to treat proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Removal of the eye's crystallin lens during a vitrectomy procedure
What is injected subconjunctivally to dilate the pupil in a vivectomy
A small incision is made in the conjunctive in a vivectomy to expose what?
At the end of a vivectomy a subconjunctival injection of what may be given?
betamethasone and gentamicin
During a Canaliculus repair of the traumatic eyelid laceration a lateral canthotomy is performed in order to prevent what?
Traction and tension on the wound closure
During a Caniculus repair of traumatic eyelid laceration what does the veirs rod do?
Veirs rod is placed through the laceration and the canaliculus is approximated with non absorbable suture around the rod