ARH 2090 Exam 1 FSU
Terms in this set (91)
the study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains.
an object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest.
an area of ground on which a town, building, or monument is constructed.
practical work conducted by a researcher in the natural environment, rather than in a laboratory or office.
examine and record the area and features of (an area of land) so as to construct a map, plan, or description.
the action of excavating something, especially an archaeological site.
the physical evidence of a culture in the objects and architecture they make, or have made.
ethnography:the scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures.
Ethnoarchaeology: aids archaeologists in reconstructing ancient lifeways by studying the material and non-material traditions of modern societies.
the action of conserving something, in particular.
Ground penetrating radar
is a tool that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface. This nondestructive method uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (UHF/VHF frequencies) of the radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures.
the scanning of the earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it.
the branch of geology concerned with the order and relative position of strata and their relationship to the geological time scale.
is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past. It is one of the core concepts in archaeology, the academic discipline concerned with documenting and interpreting the archaeological record.
the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed.
Primary Context/in situ
Primary Context: An undisturbed association, matrix, and provenience; the condition when they have not been disturbed since the original deposition of archaeological data
In Situ: in its original place.
The source, origin, or location of an artifact or feature and the recording of same. It is the position of an archaeological find in time and space, recorded three-dimensionally.
is organic material found at an archaeological site that carries archaeological significance
is a collection of one or more contexts representing some human non-portable activity that generally has a vertical characteristic to it in relation to site stratigraphy.
The manufacturing processes in which material is added to an original mass to form an artifact
is the study of how people control their economic resources, most particularly but not entirely, their food supply.
the set of ideas and beliefs of a group or political party
Any design, picture, or drawing painted on a surface (usually rock/stone) and used to represent a thing, action, or event.
Any design, picture, or writing carved or chipped into a rock surface.
In paleontology, the organic remains, impression, imprint, traces, or mineral replacement of an animal or plant organism of a past geologic age preserved in the strata of the earth's crust
is the analysis of stone tools and other chipped stone artifacts using basic scientific techniques
The study of the prehistoric human past
the gradual development of something, especially from a simple to a more complex form.
is the common name of AL 288-1, several hundred pieces of bone fossils representing 40 percent of the skeleton of a female of the hominin species Australopithecus afarensis.
Hominin species in which Lucy belonged to.
the condition of being two-footed or of using two feet for standing and walking.
"Upright man." Is an extinct species of hominid that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch
"able man." Is a species of the tribe Hominini, during the Gelasian and early Calabrian stages of the Pleistocene period, which lived between roughly 2.8 and 1.5 million years ago.
Homo sapiens sapiens
The Hominid genus to which humans belong. The genus includes modern man
the most recent archaic humans, who emerged between 300,000 and 100,000 years ago and were replaced by early modern humans between 35,000 and perhaps 24,000 years ago.
The differences between males and females in shape, size, or color within any population.
any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone
Flint knapping (percussion flaking, flake, core, hammerstone)
The technique of striking flakes or blades from a large flint stone (core or nucleus) and the shaping of cores and flakes into tools.
The Leakey family
A family of anthropologists whose work at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania and elsewhere revealed that humans probably first evolved in Africa
Hunting vs Scavenging
Killing prey as a predator or searching for food through gathering.
Out of Africa theory
is used in paleoanthropology to explain the geographic origin of modern day humans, and it asserts that modern humans evolved recently in Africa and migrated out into Eurasia, replacing all the regions that were once populated by lineages connected to Homo erectus.
a technique for determining the age of organic materials, such as wood, based on their content of the radioisotope 14C acquired from the atmosphere when they formed part of a living plant.
An isotopic method of dating the age of a rock or mineral by measuring the rate at which potassium-40, a radioactive form of this element, decays into argon.
Atoms of the same element that have different atomic masses due to having different numbers of neutrons in the nuclei, but which still have similar chemical properties.
is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology.
is the science of determining the relative order of past events (i.e., the age of an object in comparison to another), without necessarily determining their absolute age
Paleolithic (Upper and Lower)
of, relating to, or denoting the early phase of the Stone Age, lasting about 2.5 million years, when primitive stone implements were used.
of, relating to, or denoting the later part of the Stone Age, when ground or polished stone weapons and implements prevailed.
The process by which land is covered by continental and alpine glacier ice sheets or the period of time during which such covering occurred
Driving a hollow tube into the ground to get a stratigraphic sample of the subsoil.
Any of several ancient North American cultures based on hunting herd animals such as mammoth and bison
Soft varieties of iron oxide (hematite, limonite, goethite)which were ground and used with other materials in prehistory to make pigment.
refers to objects carved during the Upper Paleolithic period (40,000-20,000 years ago) of prehistory that can be moved, in contrast to cave art.
is the name generally given to the skeletal remains of a prehistoric Paleoamerican man found on a bank of the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington, on July 28, 1996. It is one of the most complete ancient skeletons ever found.
are the items buried along with the body.
Cultural resource management
is the vocation and practice of managing cultural resources, such as the arts and heritage
The adaptation of an animal or plant through breeding in captivity for useful advantage to and by humans.
A term describing a hypothetical process that may have existed among early agriculturists.
A mound or deposit containing shells, animal bones, and other refuse that indicates the site of a human settlement.
the reason people starting living in settlements was because during a dry spell, the only livable place was near oases.
Population pressure hypothesis
A theory that population increase in the Near East/Southwest Aisa upset the balance between people and food, forcing people to turn to an agricultural way of life, credited to Lewis Binford.
The theory that the need for more food was initially felt at the margins of the natural habitat of the ancestors of domesticated animals and plants
Natural habitat hypothesis
the theory that the earliest domesticates appeared in the area that their wild ancestors inhabited
proposed population pressure hypothesis & density equilibrium model (results in emigration to marginal lands where agriculture was needed to increase productivity)
proposed the hilly flanks theory (claims agriculture arose in areas where wild ancestors of domestcated wheat & barley grow)
means living in groups permanently in one place
is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean
The Fertile Crescent
Is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia, the Nile Valley and Nile Delta.
Tepe: is an archaeological site atop a mountain ridge in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of modern-day Turkey, approximately 12 km (7 mi) northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa.
Tell: a type of archaeological mound created by human occupation and abandonment of a geographical site over many centuries.
is the study of remains of plants cultivated or used by man in ancient times, which have survived in archaeological contexts.
is the study of faunal remains. Faunal remains are the items left behind when an animal dies.
The cultivation of domesticated crops.
is the name given to the sedentary hunter-gatherers living in the Levant region of the near east between about 12,500 and 10,200 years ago.
People who don't settle. Kept moving constantly to where there was food and good living conditions.
is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected as a monument, very often for funerary or commemorative purposes.
is commonly a historic or prehistoric fragment of pottery, although the term is occasionally used to refer to fragments of stone and glass vessels as well.
A wheel rotating horizontally which assists a potter in shaping clay into vessels.
A morphological type that has temporal significance; also known as a time-marker or index fossil
A representation of the human form in art, such as those found on ancient pottery.
Being able to read/write; not being able to read/write
Epic of Gilgamesh
One of the oldest tales found written on a tablet.
is a syllabary, a writing system used to stand for syllables or sounds in a variety of Mesopotamian languages.
spans the period from earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period
Something built in Egypt cus I'm gay.
A period in Egyptian history including the 3rd through 8th Dynasties, c 2575-2130 BC. It preceded the Middle Kingdom and is marked by the building of colossal stone pyramids.
A period of Egyptian history comprising the 18th-20th Dynasties, c 1550-1070 BC. It was the period following the expulsion of Asiatic Hyksos rulers and the subsequent reunification by Thutmose I-IV, Amenhotep, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, and Ramesses I-XI.
designating or pertaining to a pictographic script, particularly that of the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are conventionalized, recognizable pictures of the things represented
is a cave overlooking the Argolic Gulf opposite the village of Koilada in southeastern Argolis, Greece.
is a burial site in the western industrial zone of Varna
prehistoric stone circle monument, cemetery, and archaeological site located on Salisbury Plain, about 8 miles (13 km) north of Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. ... The name of the monument probably derives from the Saxon stan-hengen, meaning "stone hanging" or "gallows."
is the ancient Minoan palace and surrounding city on the island of Crete, sung of by Homer in his Odyssey
is an archaeological site in Greece, located about 90 kilometres (56 miles) southwest of Athens, in the north-eastern Peloponnese