60 terms

GMS401 Design of Work Systems

Chapter 7
Job Design
Involves specifying the content (what) and method (how) of a job.
Objective Job Design
Is to increase long-term productivity, Safety, Quality of Work Life.
Efficiency School
Emphasizes a systematic, logical approach to labor cost reduction.
Behavioral School
Emphasizes satisfaction of wants and needs of workers as a motivator for increased productivity.
Focuses jobs to a narrow scope.
Specialization Advantages For Company
Simplifies Training, High Productivity, Low Wage Costs
Specialization Advantages For Workers
Low education and skill requirements, Minimum Responsibilities, Little mental effort needed
Specialization Disadvantages For Company
Difficult to motivate quality, Worker dissatisfaction, possibly resulting in absenteeism, high turnover, disruptive tactics
Specialization Disadvantages For Workers
Monotonous/boring work, Limited opportunities for advancement, Little control over work, Little opportunity for self-fulfillment
Job Enlargement
Means giving a worker a larger portion of the total task of making the good or providing the service by horizontal loading.
Horizontal Loading
The additional work is on the same level of skill and responsibility as the original job.
Job Rotation
Means having workers periodically exchange jobs. Helps to avoid having one or a few employees stuck in monotonous/repetitive jobs. And allows workers to broaden their learning experience and enables them to fill in others in the even of sickness.
Job Enrichment
Involves an increase in the level of responsibility for planning and coordination by vertical loading.
Vertical Loading
Example: an operator who is also responsible for maintenance, set up, and quality control of the machine/process she uses.
Self-Directed Team (Autonomous team)
A group of employees who perform the same function and are empowered to make certain decisions and changes in their work.
Self-Directed Team Advantages
Higher Quality, fewer managers, higher productivity, and greater workers satisfaction
Methods Analysis
Breaks down the job into a sequence of tasks and elements and tries to make it more efficient.
Methods Analysis Procedure
1) Identify Job to be studied and gather information about its operations, machines, materials, etc.
2) Discuss the job with the operator and supervisor
3) Study and document the present method
4) Question the present method and propose a new method
Process Chart
used to review and examine he overall sequence of an operation by focusing on the movements of the operator or the flow of material.
Process Chart Advantages
Helpful in identifying the non-productive steps of the process (e.g. delays, temporary storages, distances traveled)
Worker-Machine Chart
is helpful in visualizing the portions of a work cycle during which an operator and machine are busy or idle. Helps to determine how man machines the operator can manage.
Motion Study
is the systematic study of the human motions used to perform an operation or a task. Usually performed in conjunction with time study (Work measurement)
Motion Study Purpose
to eliminate unnecessary motions and to identify the best sequence of motions for maximum efficiency. Important tool for methods analysis and producitvity improvement
Frank Gilbreth
Who originated the concept in the bricklaying trade in the early 20th century. Through the use of Motion Study, he increased the number of bricks laid per hour by a factor of 3
Motion Economy Principles
Which are guidelines for designing motion-efficient work procedures. Divided into three categories: use of arms and body, arrangement of workplace, and design of tools and equipment
Micro-motion study (slow-motion video)
Use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze
Simultaneous hands motion chart (Simo chart)
a chart that shows the elements performed by each hand, side by side, over time
is Gilbreths backwards. The Gilbreths are the subject of the movie "Cheaper By The Dozen". There is a story that Frank Gilbreth tried to save time by shaving with a razor in each hand, but stopped this practice because the amount of time spent tending his cuts took more than the time saved.
Canadian Labor Code
Safety & other standards (e.g. min wage), Workers have the right to refuse dangerous work, participate in improving health and safety, know about hazards in the workplace
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS)
mandates proper labeling of hazardous material and making available material safety data sheets
Working Conditions
Important aspect of work design. Physical factors such as temperature and humidity, ventilation, illumination, noise & vibration, work breaks, safety, ergonomics, healthy workplace all have significant impacts on worker performance in terms of productivity and quality of output
Work breaks
Efficiency declines as day wears on, can cause an upward shift in efficiency and depends on amount of physical/mental efforts
Protection against hazards
Proper lighting, clearly marked danger zones, protective equipment, safety devices, emergency equipment, housekeeping, thorough training, enforcement of procedures
Requires constant attention, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, WHMIS training required.
Two Main causes of Accidents
Careless and hazards
involves fitting the job to the worker's capability and size. It relates to the design of equipment, work methods, and work space to remove awkward reaching and bending, forceful gripping of tools, heavy lifting, and endless repetition of motions
Ergonomics Benfits
seeks to prevent common workplace injuries such as back injuries and repetitive motion injuries by taking into account the fact that people vary in their physical dimensions and capabilities, and that some activities, when continually repeated, result in strains in muscles and joints
Ergonomic Problems
are unintentional mistakes that develop because no one had the knowledge or the time to design the work system properly
Work measurement (time study)
Concerned with determining the length of time it should take to complete the job.
Job Times
are vital inputs for personnel planning, estimating labor costs, assembly-line balancing, and esigning incentive systems
Standard Time
The amount of time it should take a qualified worker to complete a specified task, working at a sustainable rate, and using given methods, tools and equipment, raw materials, and workplace arrangement
Periodic Time
Is the studies used to update Standard Time because sometimes the standard time for many jobs maybe slightly inaccurate.
Stopwatch Time Study
Used to develop a standard time for a job based on observation of one worker taken over a number of cycles.
Stopwatch Time Study basic steps
1) Define the job to be studied and inform the worker
2) Determine the number of cycles to observe
3) Time the job, and rate the worker's performance
4) Compute the Standard Time, allowing for rest periods
Number of Cycles depends on
Variability of observed times, desired accuracy, and desired level of confidence for the estimated job time
Normal Time
Is the observed time adjusted for the worker's performance. Calculated by multiplying the observed time by a performance rating.
Observed Time
Simply the average of the recorded time
Standard time based on Job Time
used when different tasks have different allowances ( ST = NT * (1+Allowance %)
Standard time based on Time in Workday
used when different tasks have similar allowances (ST = NT / (1-Allowance %)
Time studies to watch out for
Workers may attempt to shorten times, abnormally short times must be discarded, and abnormally long times should be investigated
Time Studies Cost & Disruptive
Benefits must outweigh cost. Can also use historical or published elemental times to determine times for task. Need high skill to describe task in basic elements
Predetermined Element Times
Are published data based on extensive research on element times. Commonly used set of tables -- Methods-time measurement (MTM), Time Measurement Unit (MTU), many tables for a variety of moves and conditions (distance, difficulty, weight, degree of turn, etc). And requires much time and skill
Work Sampling
Is a technique for estimating the proportion of time that a worker spends on each activity or is idle. Makes brief observations of a worker or machine at random intervals. And does not require timing an activity and continuous observation
Time-based Pay
Also known as hourly pay, compensates the employee for the time he has worked. Salary also represents a form.
Output-based (piece rate) Pay
compensates employees according tot he amount of output they produce, thereby tying pay directly to performance
Piece Rate pay should be
Accurate, easy to apply, consistent, easy to understand, and fair
Group incentive plans
sharing productivity gains with employees. Output and cost reduction (gain-sharing) and increases in profit (profit-sharing)
Skill/Knowledge-Based Bonus Plans
reward workers who undergo training to increase their skills/knowledge
Work Sampling best suited for
studying non-repetitive jobs and often result in less disruption of work than time study
Stopwatch time includes
Several repetitions are usually timed. A performance rating is usually necessary. It is well suited for repetitive jobs. Jobs that have varying task requirements can pose some difficulty.