Geology exam 2

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Physical breakdown during weathering is
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Terms in this set (74)
Carbon Dioxide dissolved in water producesCarbonic acidWhat is the most abundant continental rockGraniteWhat is the most abundant sedimentary rockShaleThe weathering of potassium feldspar producesSome silica, clay minerals,When quartz is lithified it turns intoSandstoneHow many elements make up silica minerals8What 4 silica minerals, when weathered, make soluble proudctsSodium Magneiusm Calcium PotassiumDefine Spheroidal weatheringWhen chemical weathering works inward from the outside and works on rocks. Then weathering attacks the corners harder and you end up with a sphereWhat are two characteristics for rocksMineral composition and solubilityMarble is made of ___ which makes it weak to chemical weatheringCalciteGranite is made of ___ minerals which make it pretty resistant to chemical weatheringSilicateName the order in which silicate minerals will crystalizeOlivine, Pyroxene, Amphibole, Potassium Feldspar, QuartzThe best environment for chemical weathering isLots of moisture and warm temperatureIn polar regions how does chemical weathering workIt doesn't really because the moisture is trapped up in iceIs human made acid rain also considered chemical weathering?YesWhat is the regolith?A layer of rock and mineral fragments produced by weatheringWhat is soilThe portion of the regolith that supports plantsWhat is humusThe decayed remains of animal and plant lifeWhat are the 4 components that are in good soil1) Mineral Matter 2) Humus 3) Air 4) WaterHumus enhances the soil's ability toMaintain waterWhat are the 5 factors that soil is a product of1) Time 2) Parent material 3) Climate 4) Plants and Animals 5) TopographyWhen the parent material for soil is bedrockResidual soilWhen the parent material for soil is unconsolidatedTransported soilThe nature of parent material influences the soil in 2 ways1) The rate of weathering, so the Soil formation 2) The chemical makeup will affect the soil's fertilityCan dissimilar soils develop from the same parent material?Yes parent material is not the most important factorThe longer that soil has been formingThe thicker it is and the less it resembles it's parent materialThe most influential control of soil formation isClimateIn soil, what will determine whether chemical or mechanical weathering will dominate,ClimatePlants and animals in soilFurnish oragnic matter to the surfaceThe primary source of organic matter in soil isPlantsWhat are some iron rich mineraslOlivine, Pyroxene, and HornblendeDissolution isHow minerals dilute in the waterMechanical weathering happens more inColder environments. So it increases with latitudeWhich two minerals mostly make up detrital rocksClay and Quartz MineralsClays come from the weathering ofSilicates, especially feldsparsHow do you classify detrital rocksParticle sizeLarge particles in detrital rocks tell youThat something strong had to move them so it tells you about the type of erosionIn order of decreasing size (largest first) sedimentary grains areGravel, Sand, Silt, ClayWhat does Shale consist ofSilt and Clay mineralsSince shale is very fine grained this tells you thatIt was made in a very calm environmentShales are poorly cemented and weakWhat is a fine-grained sedimentary rock that breaks into chunks or blocksMudstoneDefine fissilityThe ability to split into thin-layers along well-developed planesWhat is sandstoneThe name for rocks for which sand sized particles are presentAfter Shale, What is the most abundant sedimentary rockSandstoneIf all the particles in the rock are the same size then it is termedWell-sortedIf the grains are well well rounded then this tells youThat they have probably been airborne, or waterborne for a long timeTransportation doesn't just affect the roundness, what does it also affect?The chemical makeupWhat are the weak minerals that transportation affectsFerromagnesiums and FeldsparsWhat is the predominate mineral in most sandstoneQuartzIf a sandstone rock has 25% or more feldspar then what is it called?ArkoseWhat is a coarse-grained sedimentary rock formed by the cementation of rounded gravelConglomerateIf the large gravel pieces are angular instead of sorted then the rock isBrecciaDeposits of ___ are usually better sortedWind-blownWhat 3 rocks are formed from Chemical weatheringChert, Limestone, and Rock SaltWhat are the 2 ways that precipitation of material occurs1) inorganic (evaporation) 2) Organic (Living organisms) Biochemical originWhich rock is the most abundant chemical sedimentary rockLimestoneWhat organisms are capable of producing large amounts of limestoneCoralsWhat is one easily identifiable biochemcially produced limestone rockCoquinaWhat is one easily identifiable inorganically proudced limestone rockTravertinewhat is ChertIts name is used for a number of hard compacted rocks that contain microcrystalline quartz.Flint, Petrified wood, Agate, Jasper, these are all which types of rocksChertHalite is whatSaltWhat is an evaporiteWhen water is evaporated and salt is left behind I think