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45 terms

Psychology Chapter 8 Child Development

STUDY
PLAY
Accommodation
mental process of modifying existing schemes and creating new ones in order to incorporate new objects, events, experiences, and info
Assimilation
the mental process by which new objects, events, experiences, and info are incorporated into existing schemes
Attachment
The early, close relationship formed between infant and caregiver
Authoritarian Parents
parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish misbehavior, and value obedience to authority
Authoritative Parents
parents who set high but realistic and reasonable standards, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence
Babbling
Vocalization of the basic units of sound (phonemes)
Centration
A preoperational child's tendency to focus on only one dimension of a stimulus
Concrete Operations Stage
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development (ages 6-11 or 12), during which a child acquires the concepts of reversibility and conservation and is able to attend to 2 or more dimensions of a stimulus at the same time
Conservation
The understanding that a given quantity of matter remains the same if it is rearranged or changed in its appearance, as long as nothing is added or taken away
Contexts of Development
Bronfenbrenner's term for the interrelated and layered settings (family, neighborhood, culture) in which a child grows up
Cross-Sectional Study
a type of developmental study in which researchers compare groups of participants of diff ages on various characteristics to determine age related diff.
Developmental Psychology
The study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the life span.
Equilibration
The mental process that motivates humans to keep schemes in balance with the real environment
Formal Operations Stage
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development (ages 11 or 12 and beyond), which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations
Longitudinal Study
A type of developmental study in which the same group of participants is followed and measured at different ages
Neglecting Parents
parents who are permissive and are not involved in their children's lives
Object Permanence
The realization that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight
Organization
Piaget's term for a mental process that uses specific experiences to make inferences that can be generalized to new experiences
Overextension
The application of a word, on the basis of some shared feature, to a broader range of objects than is appropriate
Overregularization
act of inappropriately applying the grammatical rules for forming plurals and past tenses to irregular nouns and verbs
Permissive Parents
parents who make few rules or demands and usually do not enforce those that are made; they allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior
Phonological Awareness
sensitivity to the sound patterns of a language and how they are represented as letters
Preoperational Stage
Piage's second stage of cognitive develpment (ages 2-6) which is characterized by the development and refinement of schemes for symbolic representation
Reflexes
Inborn, unlearned, automatic responses to certain environmental stimuli
Reversibility
The fact that when only the appearance of a substance has been changed, it can be returned to its original state
Scheme
A plan of action, based on previous experiences, to be used in similar circumstances
Sensorimotor Stage
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development (ages birth to 2) in which infants gain an understanding of their world through their senses and their motor activities; culminates with the development of object permanence and the beginning of representational thought
Separation Anxiety
The fear and distress shown by infants and toddlers when the parent leaves, occurring from 8-24 mos and reaching a peak between 12 & 18 mos
Socialization
process of learning socially acceptable behaviors, attitudes, and values
Stranger Anxiety
fear of strangers commmon in infants at about 6 & 7 mos of age, which increases in intensity until about 12 1/2 mos and then declines
Telegraphic Speech
short sentences that follow a rigid word order and contain only 3 or so essential content words
Temperament
A person's behavioral style or characteristic way of responding to the environment
Underextension
The restriction of a word to only a few, rather than to all, members of a class of objects
Critical Period
A period during the the embryonic stage when certain body structures are developing and can be harmed by negative influences in the prenatal envrionment.
Embryo
The developing heman organism during the period from week 3 through week 8, when the major systems, organs, and the structures of the body develop.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A condition that is caused by maternal alcohol intake early in prenatal development and that leads to facial deformities as well as retardation.
Fetus
The developing human organism during the period from week 9 until birth, when rapid growth and further development of the structures, organs, and systems of the body occur.
Habituation
A decrease in response or attention to a stimulus as an infant becomes accustomed to it.
Low Birth Weight
A weight at birth of less than 5.5 pounds.
Maturation
Each infant's own genetically determined, biological pattern of development.
Neonate
A newborn infant up to 1 month old.
Prenatal Development
Development that occurs between conception and birth and consists of three stages (germinal, embryonic, and fetal).
Underextension
The restriction of a word to only a few, rather than to all, members of a class of objects.
Visual Cliff
An apparatus used to measure infants' ability to percieve depth.
Zygote
The single cell that forms when a sperm and egg unite.