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William H. Seward

He was secretary of state under Johnson and Lincoln. He helped purchase Alaska as well as creating a secret police force.

Salmon P. Chase

was the sixth chief justice of the Supreme Court and an abolitionist. presided over the trial of President Andrew Johnson

Edwin Stanton

served as the secretary of war under Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. He refused to leave after Johnson fired him, thus starting the impeachment process.

Fort Sumter

One of the last union forts to be taken by the South before the Civil War. Taken due to Lincoln sending supplies. Ignited fuse for Civil War.

Border States

States that lied between North and South. Their choice of sides would greatly help the war effort due to population and manufacturing. It also made diplomacy trickier.

Habeas Corpus

A writ that allows a criminal to challenge custody. With it, the Union couldn't make its secret arrests; therefore, it was suspended for the time being.

Robert E. Lee

A former union general that joined the South after Virginia seceded. He was in charge of the Confederate Army, and led it to many victories.

Ulysses S. Grant

He was the head of the Union Army by the end of the war and defeated Lee. Defeated Lee at Appomattox, ending the Civil War.

William T. Sherman

A Union general and friend of Grant that was given command of the push to the sea. One of the more competent Union generals, he secured the deep south by a total war policy.

Army of the Potomac

It was the major Union army in the eastern front. It fought many battles and ultimately won the war.

George McClellan

He was a Union general that was in charge during the beginning of the war. He defeated Lee, at Antietam, securing a much needed Union victory.


It was a major Union victory over the South. It removed all hopes in the South of getting foreign support.

Emancipation Proclamation

The proclamation declared all blacks in southern states free. This enabled the Union to field even more men for the war.

Thirteenth Amendment

The amendment outlawed slavery and involuntary servitude in the U.S. It guaranteed that blacks would be freed.


This was the last battle of the Civil War that ended in a Union victory. It ended the war.

Morrill Tariff Act

a tarriff which was higher than before. This was an example of how easy Congress could pass new laws since the South were not readmitted yet.

Homestead Act

Act that was passed by Congress that granted 160 acres of frontier land to someone if they worked on it. This was an example of how easy Congress could pass new laws since the South were not readmitted yet, and it helped the migration to the west.

National Bank Act

It raised money for the Union in the American Civil War by enticing banks to buy federal bonds, and taxed state bonds out of existence. It helped the Union war effort economically.

Conscription Law

The law enacted a draft of men into the army. It helped increase the manpower of the Union army.


Northerners who sympathized with the South during the Civil War. They undermined the war effort and posed a threat to Lincoln's reelection.

Clement L. Vallandigham

He was a prominent copperhead who shouted many treasonous terms. He threatened Lincoln's bid for reelection by running as a copperhead.

Andrew Johnson

Lincoln's vice-president and president after Lincoln was assassinated. He headed Reconstruction efforts after Lincoln's death.

Freedman's Bureau, 1865

The bureau was a mini-welfare organization that provided food, clothing, and education to freedmen and refuges. It taught many blacks how to read.

Ten Percent Oath

In order to be readmitted to the U.S., seceded states had to have 10% of their population take an oath of loyalty. It caused an uproar in congress, which marked a start in the disagreements the two branches would have.

Wade-Davis Bill

Similar to Lincoln's 10% plan, the bill required 50%. Pocket vetoed, this caused congress to deny seating to delegates from Louisiana government.

Black Codes

local laws intended to force African-Americans to continue working as plantation laborers. This was to ensure a stable labor source for plantations.

Jim Crow Laws

designed to segregate white and black in the post war era. This displayed the feeling whites had towards blacks that would continue to the 1960s.

Fourteen Amendment

It states that no state can make or enforce any law which "deprives any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." Also, states could not "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." This was passed to help blacks since the Civil Rights laws were not being enforced.

Ex Parte Milligan

Supreme Court decided that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional because civilian courts were still operating, and the Constitution of the United States (according to the Court) only provided for suspension of habeas corpus if these courts are actually forced closed. In essence, the court ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians in areas where civil courts were open, even during wartime.

Fifteenth Amendment

This amendment explicitly forbids denial of the right to vote for citizens "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It gave blacks their right to vote.


a white Southerner who joined the Republican party during the Reconstruction period. they were also considered traitors to the Southern cause. Part of the radical government, they passed much needed reforms.


Northerners who went to the South during Reconstruction. They carried their belongings in carpetbags, and most intended to settle in the South and make money there. Part of the radical government, they passed much needed reforms.

Ku Klux Klan

Organization formed by ex-Confederates in opposition to Reconstruction that terrorize African-Americans and their supporters. Resulted in the Force Acts, and it displayed the Southern feeling of resentment.

Tenure of Office Act, 1867

It was a measure passed by Congress in 1867 that prohibited the president from dismissing anyone whose appointment had required the consent of the Senate unless the Senate agreed to the dismissal. Passed because Johnson would violate it, it started the impeachment crisis.

Seward's Folly

was the purchase of Alaska from Russia. Although seen as a foolish purchase, this added more land and available resources to the U.S.

Hayes-Tilden, 1876

This was the presidential election at the end of Reconstruction. The closeness of it resulted in the Compromise of 1877.

Compromise of 1877

In exchange for the electoral votes needed to win the election, Hayes would remove federal soldiers. It marked the end of Reconstruction efforts.

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