History 111 Ancient Greek
Terms in this set (31)
First civilization to arise in Europe.
· Began on the island of Crete.
· Began about 2000BC
· Were not Greek, didn't speak Greek didn't have Greek culture or Greek religion.
· Based prosperity, power, and survival on trade.
· Minoans engaged in trade with all of the great ancient civilizations.
· Minoan's also controlled many other islands in the Aegean sea.
· Minoans were around for 600 yrs.
· Around 1400BC to Minoans disappeared.
-system of writing called Linear A
-had a navy that defended themselves
- Greatly influenced and civilized the first Greeks incoming into the area, ie the Mycenaeans. Much of Mycenean culture, art, architecture, even Linear B is based of the Minoans.
excavation site on island of Crete -> discovery of Linear B
excavation here produced evidence of a civilization resembling that of Mycenae on the Greek mainland, but even older and more splendid
-A huge palace complex
-Excavated by Evans
-Covered about 300 acres
-Served as the political and economic center of Crete
the guy that found/discover the minoans
-A very wealthy man from England
-Decided he would dig in the island of Crete
-Discovered the first great civilization of Ancient Greece and named it Minoans based of the King Minos
4. Linear A
writing form for minoans, based on Egyptian writing - never been deciphered. One of the first written languages. Possibly syllabic.
- 1400-1100 BC.
- Replaced the Minoan civilization. Part of the Indo-Europeans.May have taken out the
Minoans. Migrated from the North and were the first "greeks" to settle on the mainland.
- The first "Greeks". Shared the religion, culture, and language.
- Learned about trade, art, and reading from Minoans and like minoans relied on trade for survival.
- biggest city = Mycenea, never rebuilt after fall of Myceneans
- Not politically unified, dozens of independent city-states.
- Ended in 1100 BC. Possibly by;
- Serious internal problems.
- Break down of the economy.
- Natural disasters.
- massive invasions by Barbarians to the North
replaced the Minoans. they migrated into greece from the north, they came from the top of the mountains. they settled on the greece mainland in the central and southern greece.
they were the first greeks. spoke greek, greek culture, and had greek religion. they were part of a much larger group known as the indo-europeans
- made up of a tribe that once lived in Southern Russia
- The orginal tribe broke up and went in different directions
- Most European languages are derived from the tribe's language and were all related to one another because of their descendants
they were a tribe that is now where russia is. the original Indo-europeans group broke up and different parts of the tribe split up in every direction. which caused their languages to divert and differed dramatically. since they all originated with the same language, they shared some of the same words and the grammatical structure
they settled all over europe, which is why all european language today is part of the indo-european language.
persians, indian, latin, english, italian, greeks, and etc all are indo-european
had absolute power like pharaohs.
- Ruled complex poltical & economic systems.
actively involved in trade and production of goods
key and important development for warfare;
used by the Myceneans which at first gave them a great advantage. Later, the barbarian people developed new technology and tactics to overcome the chariot which led to the Mycenean demise
Myceneans had number one weapon of war therefore they would be able to fight back against the barbarians, which was the Chariot, but somehow the barbarians were able to develop new technologies and new battle tactics which allowed them to overcome the Chariot on the battle field. This led to the extinction of the Mycenean civilization. the Myceneans knew they were coming and tried to defend themselves with these expected attacks
Biggest city-state in Mycenean Greece.
-Had a population of about 200,000 people
-First Mycenean city to be excavated
-Discovered by Schliemann
A major city state of the Mycenaean age. Destroyed by barbarians during the Mycenaean age and Dark age transition.
Repopulated twice after initial destruction
each set of constructions were smaller than the last. Both times they were redestroyed.
A city, written accounts of last days. Mythical home of King Nestor, detailed wax tablets exist that chronicled the last days of the city-
the wanax was making frantic preparations, knew enemies were coming so he mobilized the whole army and in desperations resorted to human sacrifice, which was nearly unheard of in Greek religion;
Pylos was destroyed and the site was never repopulated.
Pylos was the last surviving city of the Mycenean civilization.
12. Hittite Empire:
First of the Indo-European to use iron
Constructed weapons that were stronger and cheaper
Created their own empire in western Asia and threatened the power of the Egyptians
New waves of Indo-European peoples destroyed the Hittite empire
Left no dominant powers in western Asia
part of the Med. world.
-learned bronze armor, the compound bow and the chariot warefare from the Hyksos
-Ramese II best pharoah from Egypt
-Battle of Qadesh (War p.8-9)
- Hittite King (Muwatallis) sent 2 spies to Rameses II
- Rameses believed spies and went to where spines told him to be
- Became surrounded
- Called upon Amon (Egyptian God) for help
- Rameses men were too scared to fight
- Rameses alone charged all the Hittites
- Inspired his men to fight and they followed him
- Unexpected response to Hittite King and he fled from fear
Survived the colaspe of the Bronze Age, but never recovered
14. Dark Age
- Reduction in population, loss of 95% of people.
- Stop in art and literacy.
1) dramatic reduction in population by murder, famine, or fled
2) cities destroyed and never repopulated
3) art and architecture stops
4) people forget how to read and write
this caused a dramatic reduction in population, 95% of the people were gone. either they were killed off, died of starvation, or they fled elsewhere. whole city's were destroyed and never repopulated. Mycenae was never rebuilt and never repopulated.
Mycenean architecture and art stops, they even forget to read and write. this truly caused a large and dark age.
dark age lasted for 300 years to 800 bc. till a new peri
- Was a city in the kingdom of Pylos
In a good location becuase it was on a ridge and close to rivers
-During the Mycenean period the city had 1000 people
-Governed by a local offical called the basileus
After Pylos was attacked Nichoria was abandoned becuase of fear of attack
Had become cut off from the rest of the world
Around 1075 60 people had returned and from there the population had slowly grew to 200 people, making it the biggest Dark Age settlement in Greece
Large hOuse was discovered (2nd structure in Dark Age Greece)
Made of wood and mud brick
Located in Central Greece and was a big and wealthy city during the Mycenean period
After it was burned and plundered the surviors and fled, but came back
Tried to rebuild the city as they could but it was difficult
Because it was cut off from the rest of Greece the city was built on a smaller scale and had an apperance of a shanty town.
The city was very crowded
It was attacked and burned and the people fled again
For a third time people came back and again it was attacked and after that it was abandoned for about 50 years
around 1150 people began to return grew
By this time people the invasions stopped and people felt safe enough to engage in trade
Biggest structure was found at this time
When people settled down, a stratified (class) society emerges rather than with hunting-gathering there was a more eglartarian socirty
This was illustrated by a tomb with a man and woman and they had numerous items and this demonstrated their status
After collapse of the Bronze Age, chariots no longer employed as weapons of war/ cavalry replaces chariot/ Mid 800 b.c.e. first evidence of calvary in battle on Assyrian reliefs/ cavalry- armed only with a bow and equipped with no other weapons or armor
18. Archaic Age
- Dramatic recovery, stage is set for Golden ("Classical") Age.
- Greece is populated again by Greeks.
- Probably descendants of surviving Myceneans.
- ready to build civilization again
a period of dramatic recovery for greece. the stage would be set for the most classical/golden age that follows. greece is now again populated by greeks. its possible that barbarian greeks destroyed the greeks in Mycenae. either that or they are the descendants of Myceneans.
· During the archaic age all the bad stuff that happened during the dark age began to reverse.
· There population begins to rise, the number and size of cities increases dramatically.
· Because of the rise of pop. The Greeks are again forced to trade with the outside world.
· Trade provided them with enough food, and resources, to feed their growing population.
· During this age the Greeks sent out colonies all over the known world.
· These settlements are independent.
· Upon wondering they are able to borrow important technologies, ones that will have a great impact on Greek civilization.
· They learned about coinage (using coins for trade).
· They learned the technology of iron.
· During the archaic age is when the Greeks met the phonecians.
First recorded games were in 776 BC. Held every 4 yrs in Olympia and honored Zeus.
- Important religious & athletic contest.
- Only Greeks allowed.
- 5 events orginally.
- Individuals were made famous and rich through these events.
Realization that the Greeks represented a unique ethnic group; language, culture, religion, & history.
- Manifested through; Mythology, religion (from Myceneans), & Olympic games.
- renewed interest in Greek places of Greek religion
the greek people believed they represented for a unique ethnic group. they came to realize that they had their own unique language, culture, religion, history. this made them different from other people in the mediteranean.
when they realized this that they were different, this referred to pantellenism. pantellenism manifested itself in many ways
it created a renew interest in greeks historical past, referring to greek mythology. greeks believed that all their stories are real history. therefore we find a renewed interest in the place of those stories
this also created a renewed interest in their religion during the mycenean ages, people made pilgrimages surrounding the greek world.
the most famous of the pantellenism, was the creation of the olympic games. the first olympics was held in 776 bc. it began in 776bc in oylympia. it was held to honor the great greek god zeus but it also began as a religious and athletic contest. it started off with five events and became huge later on. they made a lot of money and were well taken care of in their home cities.
21. heroic revival
-Renewed interest in Greek past
--Renewed interest in Greek past
- all of the heros, events, and mythology ; or all Greeks mythology was true history, most notably the Trojan War.
Another expression of panhellenism. He Greeks, especially he kings, devoted themselves to emulating the heroes of the Mycenaean age, because it was believed that hey were the essence of greatness.
Wrote the Illiad/odyssey was the first Greek poet. Wrote stories of the Trojan war
( believe that Trojan war was a real event ) Famous Greek poet Author of the Iliad and the Odyssey / The Greeks regarded these as authentic history /He didn't necessarily record history, but rather made it himself /He gave the Greeks a single universally accepted model of heroism, honor, and nobility. Debate if the poems had more than one author n the date of its creation? The best guesses seem to be in the early archaic age. ( illiad and odyssey during this time ) Homer and the other authors were traveling entertainers that travel from place to place to tell their stories.
23. Trojan War
Trojan Prince Paris visits Greek city of Sparta where King Menelaus rules and is married to Helen; She was the most beautiful girl in the world and Paris was the most handsom man so they instantly fall in love; Helen abandons Sparta and goes back to Troy with Paris. Menelaus is very unhappy so he asks for help from King Agememnon, King of Mycenea, the most powerful city and king in all of Greece.The Spartans build a huge wooden horse as a peace gift, but instead utilize the horse as a surprise attack. Once inside the heavily walled Troy, the city is left in ruins and destroyed. Whether the Trojan War was fact or fiction, it was believed by Greeks to be true. Stories like these are very common in Greek mythology and greeks believed that all the religious myths happened during the Archaic Age.
ancient greeks believed that the trojan war was a real event and took place at the end of the Mycenean period
-Works by Homer. Iliad discussed end of Trojan War in flashbacks between Greece and Troy. Chronicles Achille's battle against Hector, and his eventual death. Story ends before Greeks are victorious and Troy is sacked.
-Odyssey chronicles Oddysseus's voyage back home from the Trojan War. He tells of the Trojan horse being used, and how the city fell to the Greeks.
25. Homeric gods
Zeus, Athena, Aphrodite, etc. Described as ruthless and always sort of toying with humans and heroes.
- Described as anthropomorphic; that is, they possesed human characteristics such as rage, lust and jealousy in addition to superhuman attributes and immortality
Shady German business man.
- Used his time & money to prove Homer was historically correct.
- Used Homer as a guide, through Homer's detailed geography. Found the hill where Troy was. Digs and finds more than a dozen cities on his site.
- Some parts of Homer's story are found.
- Political map from Mycenaen time.
- Artifacts that would have been from Mycenean's time; Ships, Shields, and Helmets.
-His life during his search for troy described in detail in the first of our all day films.
Deciphered the Mycenaen's system of writing called Linear B.
- Decided Linear B represented Greek.
- Linear B is translated and a better view of the Mycenean world is discovered
- Tablets describe nothing like how Homer descibes it./ Nothing like the world described by Homer. Society described by Homer is not Mycenean but his own time period.
28. Linear B:
Mycenean writing system that used symbols, although advanced for it's time, since it has so many symbols it was a lot for a person to grasp. Linear B disappeared along with the Myceneans.
Greek for king. Expected to lead the defense of the community, to protect not just his land, animals, and wealth but also those of his people. He was also expected to lead them in campaigns outside the community. Basileus system generally phased out in favor of oligarchies, sometimes peacefully and other times by violence.
- Did not have absolute power like a wanax; instead they would need to persuade their followers
-eventually came to coincede with the greek word for "king"
-was a Mycenean term, a low level political official
-but in Homer's time became a title for king
-as population expands, there were more and more communities with Basileus who collided and conflicted with each other
-eventually one Basileus, the big Basileus, the big king rules over lesser basileus's (subordinates), Odysseus was a big basileus as are the other kings in the story
-having a Greek family is very important, you have to have a big family to protect your position (ex. Telemacus)
-have to have your own abilities, Basileus is not a permenant position, you lead as long as you have people to follow you
-wealth is very important
-Have to have lots of slaves and servants
-must be a wise leader (first in council)
-must be a religious leader, he is the one that sacrifices on behalf of the community to the gods
-he is the top judge
-must be a great warrior who leads literally from the front, he leads the charge in the battle
-he has power as long as his men follow him to battle
-in Homer direct correlation to military service and power
-ex. Odysseus have power because they possess intruments of fighting
-big basileus like Odysseus do not have absolute power, not like Eygptian pharaoh, they can't simply order people to do stuff, no such word
-he must persuade ppl to do want he wants
-thats why Odysseus soldiers have certain rights like freedom of speech etc
-Homer offers a preview of whats to come militarily and politically
Most important social unit, meaning "household".
- Extended family
- If wealthy, would include servants & slaves.
- Property: Wealth of the family (house, land, animals & other things of value)
- During the Dark Age, there weren't that many oikos, so each oikos would be in charge of their own affairs.
- During the Archaic Age, the population was growing, leading to more oikos. They were no longer able to decide their own affairs because people were now living a lot closer to each other. Only leadership was the way to get everyone to listen, and this led to the basileus.
The gods described by Homer in the Iliad and the Odyssey. The works provide incredible insight into the religion of the time. The books describe the rule of the gods, their powers, their personalities and how they involve themselves with human activity. They play a huge role in the lives of the characters in Homer's books. They in fact are the 'cause' of the war. The Judgement of Paris is described in the Iliad. Three goddesses, Athena, Aphrodite, and Hera, came to Paris (the most beautiful man in the world) to have him judge which of them were more beautiful. They all offered him prizes if he chose them. Aphrodite offered him the hand of the most beautiful woman in the world if he chose her. He did and therefore felt he deserved the hand of Helen of Sparta in marriage. Aphrodite caused Helen to fall in love with Paris. Thus starting the war. From the other two goddesses he won their hate. The gods were vicious when angry. Anytime someone angered the gods, they hate to face horrible hardship or death. For example, Odysseus kept taunting Poseidon and was thereby how he lost his whole army on his return.
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