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33 terms

Organic Chemistry

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Organic compound
carbon-based molecules
Functional group
an assemblage of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
Enzymes
A protein that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process.
Dehydration synthesis (condensation)
taking out water
Hydrolysis
A chemical process in which polymers are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion.
Carbohydrate
Member of the class of biological molecules consisting of simple single-monomer sugars, two monomer sugars, and other multiunit sugars. polymers of simple sugars (monosaccharides)
Monosaccharide
The simplest carbohydrate; a simple sugar with a molecule formula that is generally some multiple of CH20. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Glucose
an isomer of monsaccharides
Fructose
ketose sugar, C6H12O6, sweeter than sucrose
Galactose
C6H12O6, obtained in its dextrorotatory form from milk sugar by hydrolysis
Disaccharide
A sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharide linked by a dehydration reaction.
Lactose
a disaccharide that upon hydrolysis yields glucose and Galactose. C12H22O11
Sucrose
a disaccharide, the sugar obtained from the sugarcane, the sugar beet, and sorghum. C12H22O11
Maltose
water-soluble sugar formed during the digestion of starch. C12H22O11
Polysaccharide
many sugars covalently bonded.
glycogen
stored in the liver and muscles, converted to glucose when blood sugar lowers
Starch
Starch is a storage carbohydrate for plants (along with oils which are lipids).
Cellulose
comprises the cell walls of plant cells, giving them structure; source of "fiber" in our diet
Lipids
Triglycerides, waxes, phospholipids, steroids. Make up cell membranes (phospholipids), serve as an energy reserve and insulation, and also anchor and pad major organs.
Fatty acids
Has a long hydrocarbon chain ending in a carboxyl group that bond to glycerol to form a fat.
Glycerol
used for sweetening and preserving food, obtained from animal fats and oils or by the fermentation of glucose
saturated fat
generally solid at room temperature, originate in animal fats (exception in palm oil and avocados)
unsaturated fat
have double bonds, originate in plants, are liquid at room temperature
Waxes
any of a group of substances composed of hydrocarbons, alcohols, fatty acid. Is solid at ordinary temperatures.
steroids
large group of fat-soluble organic compounds
Cholesterol
found in animal tissues and various foods, that is normally synthesized by the liver and is important as a constituent of cell membranes and something that indicates outcome or event beforehand to steroid hormones. Found in animal tissues and various foods, that is normally synthesized by the liver and is important as a constituent of cell membranes and a precursor to steroid hormones.
Proteins
are polymers of amino acids. Proteins can lose their 3-D shape when pH or temperature is changed; losing the shape alters the function. This is called denaturing a protein. Can be structure four different ways: primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary.
amino acids
C2HNH2 any of a class of organic compounds that contains at least one amino group, -NH2, and one carboxyl group, -COOH
acid group (carboxyl group)
a set of four atoms bonded together
polypeptides
a chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
Denaturation
to change its original state by either physical or chemical means.
nucleic acid
control heredity
phospholipids
Phospholipids are made of a hydrophilic phosphate "head" and 2 hydrophobic fatty acid "tails"