an assemblage of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
A protein that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process.
Dehydration synthesis (condensation)
taking out water
A chemical process in which polymers are broken down by the chemical addition of water molecules to the bonds linking their monomers; an essential part of digestion.
Member of the class of biological molecules consisting of simple single-monomer sugars, two monomer sugars, and other multiunit sugars. polymers of simple sugars (monosaccharides)
The simplest carbohydrate; a simple sugar with a molecule formula that is generally some multiple of CH20. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides and polysaccharides.
an isomer of monsaccharides
ketose sugar, C6H12O6, sweeter than sucrose
C6H12O6, obtained in its dextrorotatory form from milk sugar by hydrolysis
A sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharide linked by a dehydration reaction.
a disaccharide that upon hydrolysis yields glucose and Galactose. C12H22O11
a disaccharide, the sugar obtained from the sugarcane, the sugar beet, and sorghum. C12H22O11
water-soluble sugar formed during the digestion of starch. C12H22O11
many sugars covalently bonded.
stored in the liver and muscles, converted to glucose when blood sugar lowers
Starch is a storage carbohydrate for plants (along with oils which are lipids).
comprises the cell walls of plant cells, giving them structure; source of "fiber" in our diet
Triglycerides, waxes, phospholipids, steroids. Make up cell membranes (phospholipids), serve as an energy reserve and insulation, and also anchor and pad major organs.
Has a long hydrocarbon chain ending in a carboxyl group that bond to glycerol to form a fat.
used for sweetening and preserving food, obtained from animal fats and oils or by the fermentation of glucose
generally solid at room temperature, originate in animal fats (exception in palm oil and avocados)
have double bonds, originate in plants, are liquid at room temperature
any of a group of substances composed of hydrocarbons, alcohols, fatty acid. Is solid at ordinary temperatures.
large group of fat-soluble organic compounds
found in animal tissues and various foods, that is normally synthesized by the liver and is important as a constituent of cell membranes and something that indicates outcome or event beforehand to steroid hormones. Found in animal tissues and various foods, that is normally synthesized by the liver and is important as a constituent of cell membranes and a precursor to steroid hormones.
are polymers of amino acids. Proteins can lose their 3-D shape when pH or temperature is changed; losing the shape alters the function. This is called denaturing a protein. Can be structure four different ways: primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary.
C2HNH2 any of a class of organic compounds that contains at least one amino group, -NH2, and one carboxyl group, -COOH
acid group (carboxyl group)
a set of four atoms bonded together
a chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
to change its original state by either physical or chemical means.
Phospholipids are made of a hydrophilic phosphate "head" and 2 hydrophobic fatty acid "tails"