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You and your team are building an X-ray source for a diffraction instrument used to study the crystalline structure of materials. You decide to use the radiation from a copper (Z=29) target. (a) Estimate the minimum energy that an incoming electron must have in order to knock a K-shell electron out of the Cu atom. (b) Through what voltage must you accelerate the electrons? (c) What is the cutoff wavelength of the Bremsstrahlung radiation for the electron energy found in (a)? (d) What is the wavelength of the line? Convert this to the energy of the X-ray photons (in eV) (e) If a first-order peak (m=1) appears at an angle of when the radiation found in ( d) passes through a hypothetical diffraction grating, what would be the "line spacing" of the grating? Note distances between atoms in solids are on the order of .