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Aggression Chapter 10
Terms in this set (56)
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone; excludes unintentional harm or actions that involve pain as a result of helping someone. ex: dentist
2 Types of Animal Aggression
1. social aggression
2. silent aggression
characterized by displays of rage
when a predator stalks his prey
2 types of human aggression
1. hostile aggression
2. instrumental aggression
springs from anger; it's goals is to injure ex: murder
aims to injure but only as a means to another end. ex: terrorism
3 theories of aggression
1. aggression as a biological phenomenon
2. aggression as a response to frustration
3. aggression as a learned behavior
instinct theory and evolutionary psychology
(biological phenomenon) Freud and Lorenz saw aggression as instinctive; not true because aggression varies from person to person and culture
an innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species (universal)
____________ often occurs when males are competing with other males, or when a man's social status is challenged.
Aggression is ________
adaptive; McAndrew and Archer discovered this.
_______-________ aggression helps explain why aggression is highest during adolescence and early adulthood, when the competition for status and mates is the most intense.
(biological phenomenon) when scientists activate these brain areas, hostility increases and vice versa. ; violent people's brains are abnormal and contribute to abnormally aggressive behavior (Raine studied this)
a part of the brain core that controls aggression
(biological phenomenon) hereditary influences the neural system's sensitivity to aggressive cues.
(biological phenomenon and genetic influence) how intense and reactive we are.
(biological phenomenon) blood chemistry influences neural sensitivity to aggressive stimulation.
(biochemical influences) unleashes aggression when people are provoked; enhances aggressiveness by reducing people's awareness; it deindividuates and disinhibits
(biochemical influence) the higher the testosterone levels are in men the more likely they will be aggressive
(biochemical influence) Gesh did a study w/ prisoners that showed a better diet makes you less aggressive
frustration aggression theory
the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress.
a behavior resulted from anything that blocks us from attaining a goal ex: a soda machine eating your money
the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target.
________ ___________ is most likely to occur when the target shares some similarity to the instigator and does some minor irritating act that unleashes the displaced aggression
Who are especially the targets who are vulnerable to displaced aggression?
frustration aggression theory advised
(Berkowitz) realized that the original theory overstated the frustration aggression connection so he revised it to say frustration produces anger, an emotional readiness to aggress.
(aggression as response to frustration); the perception that one is less well off than others with whom one compares oneself; coined by Merton and Kitt studying World War 2 soldiers
aggression as a learned behavior
contends that learning pulls aggression out of us.
rewards of aggression
(learning aggression) we learn that aggression often pays (rewards)
(learning aggression) Bandura proposed a social learning theory; believes we learn aggression by observing others; ex: bobo doll experiment; observing aggression lowers inhibitions and teaches ways to aggress.
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
What are some influences on aggression?
1. aversive incidents
3. aggression cues
4. pornography/sexual violence
6. video games
3 types of aversive influences
(all heighten aggressiveness)
Berkowitz proposed that ______ _______ rather than frustration is the basic trigger of hostile aggression.
a given state of bodily arousal feeds one emotion or another, depending on how the person interprets and labels the arousal; arousal fuels emotions; when it combines with hostile thoughts and feelings it can create aggressive behavior
considering frustration-aggression hypothesis, violence is more likely when aggressive cues release pent-up anger.
media influence on pornography
Social psychologists report that viewing such fictional scenes of a man overpowering and arousing a woman can a) distort one's perceptions of how women actually respond to sexual coercion b) increase men's aggression against women.; exposure to violent porn increases punitive behavior toward women.
distorted perceptions of sexual reality
studies confirm that exposure to porn increases acceptance of the rape myth.
aggression against women
evidence suggests that porn contributes to men's actual aggression..
psychologists favor "_____ ________ "training
media influences: Television
By the end of elementary school, the average child has witnessed some 8,000 tv murders and 100,000 other violent.
television's effects on behavior
the more violent the content of the child's tv viewing, the more aggressive the child. ( extends to devious "indirect aggression")
internet influence on behavior
the internet allows an even greater variety of options for viewing violence than television does, including violent videos, violent pictures, and hate-group websites.
why does tv viewing affect behavior?
1. It produces arousal which energizes other behaviors.
2. Viewing violence disinhibits.
3.Media portrayls also evoke imitation.
Viewing violence ______ the viewer for aggressive behavior by activating violence-related thoughts.
positive, constructive, helpful social behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior.
television's effects on thinking
2. social scripts
3. altered perceptions
4. cognitive priming
5. time drain
culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations
for those who watch much television, the world becomes a scary place.
violent tv primes aggressive related ideas
effects of playing violent video games
1. increases in aggressive behaviors
2. increases aggressive thoughts
3. increases in aggressive feelings, including hostility, anger, or revenge
4. decreases in helping others and in empathy for others
emotional release. the catharsis view of aggression is that the aggressive drive is reduced when one "releases" aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression. (this is not true); concept credited to Aristotle
the greater the group, the more aggression. (they do this through social "contagion" = group fed arousal, disinhibits, and polarization.)
social phenomena fed by " moral imperatives" a collective mentality (including images, rhetoric, and ideology) that mobilizes a group or a culture for extraordinary actions.
Aggression is predicted by:
1. male actors
2. aggressive or anger-prone personalities
3. alcohol use
4. violence viewing
7. the presence of weapons
8. group interaction
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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