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76 terms

History Key Terms, Ch. 1-5

History Key Terms, Chapters 1 through 5, for exams!
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history
the written events of people
prehistory
time before writing was invented
archaeologist
a scientist who studies objects to learn about the the past
oral traditions
stories passed on by word of mouth
geography
the study of Earth's surface and how it is shaped
Stone Age
a period of time during which people made tools and weapons from stone
nomad
a person who has no settled home
fertile
able to grow plants well
domesticate
tame wild plants and animals for human use
surplus
more than is needed
artisan
a worker who is especially skilled crafting items by hand
irrigation
supplying land with water through a network of canals
civilization
a society with cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes
social class
a group of people with similar backgrounds, income, and ways of living
scribe
someone who writes for a living
Fertile Crescent
a region in Southwest Asia; site of the first civilizations
city-state
a city with its own government and king; both a city and an independent state
polytheism
the belief in many gods
myth
a traditional story or a legend that explains people's beliefs
Babylon
the capital of Babylonia; a city of great wealth and luxury
empire
many territories and peoples controlled by one government
caravan
a group of traders traveling together
bazaar
a market selling different kinds of goods
battering ram
a powerful weapon with a wooden beam mounted on wheels
code
an organized list of laws and rules
Hammurabi
the king of Babylon form about 1792 to 1750 BC; creator of the Babyonian empire
cuneiform
groups of wedges and lines used to write several languages of the Fertile Crescent
alphabet
a set of symbols that represent the sounds of the language
monotheism
the belief in one god
famine
when there is so little food that people starve
exile
to force someone to live in another country
covenant
a promise made by God
Moses
an Israelite leader whom the Torah says led the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan
prophet
a religious teacher who people believe speaks for God or a god
diaspora
the scattering of people who have a common background or beliefs
Nubia
an ancient region in the Nile River Valley now in southern Egypt and northern Sudan
cataract
a large waterfall; any strong flood or rush of water
delta
a plain at the mouth of a river, formed where flowing water deposits soil
silt
fine soil found on the bottoms of rivers
dynasty
a series of rulers from the same family or ethnic group
pharaoh
the title of the kings of ancient Egypt
absolute power
complete control over someone or something
regent
someone who rules for a child until the child is old enough to rule
afterlife
a life after death
mummy
a dead body preserved in lifelike condition
pyramid
a huge building with four sloping triangular-shaped sides; built as royal tombs in Egypt
Giza
an ancient Egyptian city; the site of the Great Pyramid
hieroglyphs
pictures and other written symbols that stand for ideas, things, or sounds
papyrus
an early form of paper made from a reed plant found in the marshy areas of the Nile delta
subcontinent
a large piece of land that sticks out from a continent
monsoon
a strong wind that blows across East Asia at certain times of the year
citadel
a fortress in a city
migrate
to relocate; to move from one place and settle in another
caste
a social class of people
brahman
a single spiritual power that Hindus believe lies in everything
avatar
a Hindu god or goddess in human or animal form
reincarnation
rebirth of the soul in the body of another living thing
dharma
the religious and moral duties of Hindus
ahimsa
the Hindu idea of nonviolence
meditate
to focus the mind inward in order to find spiritual awareness or relaxation
nirvana
the lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires
missionary
a person who spreads his or her religious beliefs to others
loess
yellow-brown soil
dike
a wall that controls or hold back water
extended family
several generations of closely related people
Confucius
(551-479BC) Chinese philosopher and teacher whose beliefs had a great influence on Chinese life
philosophy
system of beliefs and values
civil service
the group of people who carry out the work of the government
Shi Huangdi
China's first emperor
currency
money used by a group or nation
Liu Bang
founder of the Han dynasty
Wudi
Chinese emperor who brought the Han dynasty to its peak
warlord
a local leader of an armed group
Silk Road
and ancient trade route between China and Europe
silk
a valuable cloth, made by silkworms
Sima Qian
a chinese scholar who wrote the most important history of ancient China, Historical Records