Terms in this set (47)
Major and Minor Scales
by about 1690, major or minor scales were the tonal basis of most compositions.
Unity of Mood
one single mood throughout a piece
rhythmic patterns heard at the beginning of a piece are repeated throughout it.
- The beat is emphasized far more in baroque music than in most Renaissance music.
an opening melody will repeat many times.
- Melodic sequence: successive repetition of a musical idea at a higher or lower pitches.
When the dynamics do shift, the shift is sudden (terraced dynamics).
organ, harpsichord and clavichord
predominantly polyphonic. Two or more melodic lines compete for the listener's attention. Soprano and bass lines are more important. Imitation between the lines
became increasingly important
(continuous bass) played by at least two instruments:
harpsichord, organ, theorbo and a low melodic instrument: cello or bassoon.
improvised chords following the indications of numbers
The Four Seasons
a set of four solo concertos for violin, string
orchestra, and basso continuo, composed by Antonio Vivaldi
Extended composition for instrumental soloist and orchestra, usually in three movements: 1) fast; 2) slow; 3) fast.
upper strings (first and second violins and violas) and basso continuo (harpsichord plus cello, double bass, or bassoon). To the strings and continuo could be added recorders, flutes, oboes, trumpets, horns, trombones, or timpani
instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene.
a repeated section of music usually played by the full orchestra, or tutti, in baroque compositions
composition for several instrumental soloists and small orchestra.
a large group of players
Brandenburg Concerto No. 5
a concerto grosso by J. S. Bach, for a string orchestra and a group of soloists (flute, violin, and harpsichord).
a polyphonic composition based on one main theme, called a
subject. Can be for a group of instruments or voices.
usually includes three, four or five voices
second presentation of the subject in a fugue, usually in the dominant scale.
a melodic idea that accompanies the subject fairly constantly
the first section of a fugue, when the subject has been presented in each voice once.
transitional section in a fugue between presentations of the subject, which offers either new material or fragments of the subject or countersubject
compositional procedure used in fugues, in which a subject is imitated before it is completed
a single tone, usually in the bass, is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it
variation of a fugue subject in which each interval of the subject is reversed in direction
variation of a fugue subject in which the subject is presented by beginning with its last note and proceeding backward to the first
variation of a fugue subject in which the original time values of the subject are lengthened
Variation of a fugue subject in which the original time values of the subject are shortened
a short piece usually serving to introduce a fugue or another composition
a major tonic chord at the end of a musical section
a set of dance-inspired movements, for solo instruments, small groups, or orchestra
an orchestral piece to open an extended composition.
in two parts: the first slow with dotted rhythms; the second quick, starting like a fugue
Suite No.3 in D Major by Johann Sebastian Bach
overture, air, gavotte, bourree,gigue
Henry Purcell (1659-1695)
Drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment, usually a large-scale composition employing vocal soloists, chorus, orchestra, costumes, and scenery
vocal line that imitates the rhythm and pitch fluctuations of speech
song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment
speechlike melody that is sung by a solo voice
accompanied by a basso continuo
speechlike melody that is sung by a solo voice accompanied by the orchestra
Basso Ostinato (Ground Bass)
a musical idea in the bass, repeated over and over while the melodies above it change
Dido and Aeneas (1689)
a masterpiece of Baroque opera, scored only for strings and harpsichord continuo
George Frideric Handel
large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to narrative text, but without acting, scenery, or costumes; often based on biblical stories
an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by G. F. Handel.
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