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129 terms

Exam 2

All terms for Chapters 6-10
STUDY
PLAY
Industrial Food System
One that produces high-calorie, nutrient-low, processed food that is more available, affordable, and aggressively marketed than nutritious food. It is a food system in which the goal is to maximize profit, achieved by speeding up the production process, increasing the amount produced , cutting labor costs, and finding the lowest-cost ingredients
Formal Organization
Coordinating mechanisms that bring together people, resources, and technology and then channel human activity toward achieving a specific outcome
Secondary Groups
Impersonal associations among people who interact for a specific purpose
Voluntary Organizations
Formal organizations that draw together people who give time, talent, or treasure to support mutual interests, meeting important human needs, or achieve a not-for-profit goal
Coercive Organizations
Formal organizations that draw in people who have no choice but to participate; such organizations include those dedicated to compulsory socialization or to resocialization or treatment of individuals labeled as deviant
Utilitarian Organizations
Formal Organizations that draw together people seeking material gain in the form of pay, health benefits, or a new status
Bureaucracy
An organization that strives to use the most efficient means to achieve a valued goal
Ideal Type
A deliberate simplification or caricature that exaggerates defining characteristics, thus establishing a standard against which real cases can be compared
Formal Dimension
The official aspect of an organization, including job descriptions and written rules, guidelines, and procedures established to achieve valued goals
Informal Dimension
The unofficial aspect of an organization, including behaviors that depart from the formal dimension, such as employee-generated norms that evade, bypass, or ignore official rules, guidelines, and procedures
Rationalism
A process in which thought and action rooted in custom, emotion, or respect for mysterious forced is replaced by instrumental-rational thought and action
McDonalidization
"The process by which the principles of the fast food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American Society as well as the rest of the world"
Efficiency
An organization's claim offering the "best" products and services, which allow consumers to move quickly from one state of being to another (for example, from hungry to full, from fat to thin, or from uneducated to educated)
Quantification and Calculation
Numerical indicators that enable customers to evaluate a product or service easily
Predictability
The expectation that a service or product will be the same no matter where or when it is purchased
Control
The guiding or regulating, by planning out in detail, the production or delivery of a service or product
Iron Cage of Rationality
The set of irrationalities that rational systems generate
Multinational Corporations
Enterprises that own, control, or license production or service facilities in countries other than the one where the corporations are headquartered
Externality
Hidden costs of using, making, or disposing of a product that are not figured into the price of the product or paid for by the producer
Trained Incapacity
The inability, because of specialized training, to respond to a new or unusual circumstances or to recognize when official rules or procedures are outmoded or no longer applicable
Statistical Measures of Performance
Quantitative (and sometimes qualitative) measures of how well an organization and its members or employees are performing
Oligarchy
Rule by the few, or the concentration of decision- making power in the hands of a few people, who hold the top positions in a hierarchy
Professionalization
A trend in which organizations hire experts with formal training in a particular subject or activity-training needed to achieve organizational goals.
Alienation
A state of being in which human life is dominated by the forced of its inventions
Deviance
Any behavior or physical appearance that is socially challenged or condemned because it departs from the norms and expectations of a group
Conformity
Behavior and appearances that follow and maintain the standards of a group; also the acceptance of the cultural goals and the pursuit of those goals through means defined as legitimate
Social Control
Methods used to teach, persuade, or force a groups members, and even nonmembers, to comply with and not deviate from its norms and expectations
Folkways
Customary ways of handling the routine matters of everyday life
Mores
Norms that people define as essential to the well-being of their group. People who violate _______ are usually punished severely.
Sanctions
Reactions of approval or disapproval to others' behavior or appearance
Positive Sanction
An expression of approval and a reward for compliance
Negative Sanction
An expression of disapproval for noncompliance
Informal Sanctions
Spontaneous, unofficial expressions of approval or disapproval that are not backed by the force of law
Formal Sanctions
Expressions of approval or disapproval backed by laws, rules, or policies that specify (usually writing) the conditions under which people should be rewarded or punished and the procedures for allocating rewards and administering punishments
Censorship
A method of preventing information from reaching an audience
Censors
People whose job is to shift information conveyed through movies, books, letters, email, TV, the internet, and other media and to remove or block any material that is considered unsuitable or threatening
Prison-Industrial Complex
The corporations and agencies with an economic stake in building and supplying correctional facilities and in providing services
Surveillance
A mechanism of social control that involves watching and otherwise monitoring the movements, activities, conversations, and associations of people to prevent them from engaging in wrongdoing; to catch those who are engaged in wrong doing; and to ensure that the public is protected from wrongdoers.
Disciplinary Society
A social arrangement that normalizes surveillance, making it expected and routine.
Conformists
People who have not violated the rules of a group and are treated accordingly
Pure Deviants
People who have broken the rules of a group and are caught, punished, and labeled as outsiders
Secret Deviants
People who have broken the rules of a group but whose violation goes unnoticed or, if it is noticed, prompts those who notice to look the other way rather than reporting the violation
Falsely Accused
People who have not broken the rules of a group but are talented as if they have
Witch Hunt
A campaign to to identify, investigate, and correct behavior that has been defined as undermining a group or country. Usually this behavior is not the real cause of a problem but is used to distract peoples attention from the real cause or to make the problem seem manageable
Primary Deviants
Those people whose rule breaking is viewed as understandable, incidental, or significant in light of some socially approved status they hold
Secondary Deviants
Those who rule breaking is treated as something so significant that it cannot be overlooked or explained away
Master Status of Deviant
An identification that proves to be more important than most other statuses that person holds, such that he or she is identified 1st and foremost as a deviant
Constructionist Approach
A sociological approach that focuses on the way specific groups, activities, conditions, or artifacts become defined as problems
Claims Makers
People who articulate and promote claims and who tend to gain in some way if the targeted audience accepts their claims as true
Claims-Making Activities
Activities taken to draw attention to a claim, such as "demanding services, filling out forms, lodging complaints, filing lawsuits, calling press conferences, writing letters of protest, passing resolutions, publishing exposes, placing ads in newspapers,...... setting up picket lines or boycotts"
Structural Strain
Any situation in which (1) the values goals of a society have unclear limits, (2) people are unsure whether the legitimate means will allow them to achieve the goals, and (3) legitimate opportunities for reaching the goals remain closed to a significant portion of the population
Innovation
The acceptance of cultural goals but the rejection of the legitimate means to achieve them
Ritualism
The rejection of cultural goals but a rigid adherence to the legitimate means of achieving them
Retreatism
The rejection of both culturally valued goals and the means of achieving them
Rebellion
The full or partial rejection of both the goals and the meaning of attaining them and the introduction of a new set of goals and means
Deviant Subcultures
Groups that are part of the larger society but whose members share norms and values favoring violation of that larger society's laws
Illegitimate Opportunity Structures
Social setting and arrangements that offer people the opportunity to commit particular types of crime
White-Collar Crimes
Crimes committed by those with high status, respectable positions as they carry out the duties and responsibilities of their occupation
Corporate Crimes
Crimes committed by a corporation through the way that it does business as it competes with other companies for market share and profits
Absolute Poverty
A situation in which people lack the resources to satisfy the basic needs no person should be without
Relative Poverty
A situation measured not be some objective standard, but rather by comparing against that of others who are more advantaged in some way
Extreme Wealth
The most excessive form of wealth
Social Stratification
The systematic process of ranking people on a scale of social worth such that the ranking affects life chances in unequal ways
Life Chances
The probability that an individuals life will follow a certain path and will turn out in a certain way
Social Inequality
A situation in which these values resources and desired outcomes are distributed in such a way that people have unequal amounts and/or access to them
Ascribed Statuses
Social positons assigned on the basis of attributes people possess through no fault of their own-those attributes are acquired at birth or are possessed through no effort or fault of their own
Achieved Statuses
Attained through some combination of personal choice, effort and ability
Social Prestige
A level of respect or admiration for a status apart from any person who happens to occupy it
Esteem
The reputation that someone occupying an ascribed or achieved status has earned from people who know and observe the person
Caste System
Any form of stratification in which people are categorized and ranked by characteristics over which they have no control and that usually cannot change.
Class System
A system of social stratification in which people are ranked on the basis of achieved characteristics, such as merit, talent, ability, or past performance
Social Mobility
Movement from one social class to another
Modernization
A process of economic, social, and cultural transformation in which a country "evolves" from preindustrial or underdeveloped status to a modern society in the image of the most developed countries
Colonialism
A form of domination in which a foreign power uses superior military force to impose its political, economic, social, and cultural institutions on an indigenous population so it can control their resources, labor, and markets
Decolonization
A process of undoing colonialism such that the colonized country achieves independence from the so-called mother country
Neocolonialism
A new form of colonialism where most powerful foreign governments and foreign-owned businesses continue to exploit the resources and labor of the post-colonial peoples
Brain Drain
The emigration from a country of the most educated and most talented people
Class
A person's overall economic and social status in a system of social stratification
Finance aristocracy
Bankers and stockholders seemingly detached from he world of "work"
Negatively Privileged Property Class
Weber's category for people completely lacking in skills, property, or employment or who depend on seasonal or sporadic employment; they constitute the very bottom if the class system
Positively Privileged Property Class
Weber's category for the people at the very top of the class system
Status Group
Weber's term for an amorphous group of people held together both by virtue of a lifestyle that has come to be expected of "all those who wish to belong to the circle"
Political Parties
According to Weber,"organizations oriented toward the planned acquisition of social power [and] toward influencing social action no matter what its content may be."
Income
The $ a person earns, usually on an annual basis through salary or wages
Wealth
The combined value of a persons income and other material assets such as stocks, real estate, and savings minus debt
Urban underclass
The group of families and individuals in inner citis who live "outside the mainstream of the American occupational system and [who] consequently represent the very bottom of the economic hierarchy"
Race
Human-constructed categories that assume great social importance. These categories are typically based on observable physical traits (for example, skin shade, hair texture, and eye shape) and geographic origin believed to distinguish one race from another
Racial Common sense
Shared ideas believed to be so obvious or natural about racial groups that they need not be questioned
Reify
Treating labels and categories as if they are real and meaningful and to forget that they are made up
Ethnic Group
People within a larger society (such as a country) who possess group of consciousnesses because they share or believe they share a common ancestry, a place of birth, a history, a key experience, or some other distinctive social traits they have defined as the "essence of their peoplehood"
Selective Forgetting
A process by which people forget, dismiss, or fail to pass on a connection to one or more ethnicities
Ethnic Renewal
This occurs when someone discovers an ethnic identity, as when an adopted child learns about and identifies with newly found biological relatives or a person learns about and revives lost traditions
Involuntary Ethnicity
When a government or other dominant group creates an umbrella ethnic category and assigns people from many different cultures and countries to it
Ethnicity
People who share, believe they share, or are believed by others to share a national origin; a common ancestry; a place of birth
Dominant Ethnic Group
The most advantaged ethnic group on a society; it is the ethnic group that possesses the greatest access to valued resources, including the power to create and maintain the system that gives it these advantages
Hidden Ethnicity
A sense of self that is based on little to no awareness of an ethnic identity because its culture is considered normative, or mainstream
Chance
Something not subject to human will, choice or effort; it helps determine a persons racial and ethnic classification
Context
The social setting in which racial and ethnic categories are recognized, created, and challenged
Choice
The act of choosing from a range of possible behaviors or appearances
Minority Groups
Subgroups within a society that can be distinguished from members of the dominant group by visible identifying characteristics, including physical and cultural attributes.
Involuntary Minorities
Ethnic or racial groups that were forced to become part of a country by slavery, conquest, or colonization
Assimilation
A process by which ethnic and racial distinctions between groups disappear because one group is absorbed into another groups culture or because 2 cultures blend to form a new culture
Absorption Assimilation
A process by which members of a minority group adapt to the ways of the dominant group, which sets the standards to which they must adjust
Segregation
The physical and/or social separation of people according to their race or ethnicity
Spatial Segregation
A de facto or de jure situation in which racial or ethnic groups attend different schools, live in different neighborhoods, use different public facilities, or occupy the same facility but sit, work, or eat on different floors, in different rooms, or at separate tables
Melting Pot Assimilation
Cultural blending in which groups accept many new behaviors and values from one another. This exchange produces a new cultural system, which is a blend of the previously separate systems.
Scientific Racism
The use of faulty science to support systems of racial rankings and theories of social and cultural progress that placed whites in the most advanced ranks and stage of human evolution
Prejudice
A rigid and usually unfavorable judgment about an out-group that does not change in the face of contradictory evidence and that applies to anyone who shares the distinguishing characteristics of the out-group
Stereotypes
Inaccurate generalizations about people who belong to an out-group; give the illusion that one knows the other
Selective Perception
The process in which prejudiced people notice only those things that support the stereotypes they hold about an out-group
Discrimination
An intentional or unintentional act of unequal treatment of individuals or groups based on attributes unrelated to merit, ability, or past performance
Individual Discrimination
Any individual or overt action aimed at someone in an out-group that depreciates, denies opportunities, or does violence to life or property
Institutionalized Discrimination
The established, customary way of doing things in society-the unchallenged rules, policies, and day-to-day practices established by advantaged groups that impede or limit the opportunities and achievements of those in disadvantaged groups
Stigma
Physical trait or other attribute that is deeply discrediting. It can be physically evident or something feared will be uncovered
Mixed Contacts
Interactions between stigmatized persons and so-called "normals."
Sex
A biological concept based on primary sex characteristics
Intersexed
A broad term used by the medical profession to classify people with some mixture of male and female
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Physical traits not essential to reproduction (Such as breast development, quality of voice, distribution of skeletal form) that result from the action of so called male (androgen) and female (estrogen) hormones
Gender
A social distinction based on culturally conceived and learned ideals about appropriate appearance, behavior, and mental and emotional characteristics for males and females
Gender Polarization
The organizing of social life around male-female ideals, so that peoples sex influences every aspect of their life, including how they dress, the time they get up in the morning, what they do before they go to bed at night, the social roles they take on, the things they worry about and even the ways they express emotion and experience sexual attraction
Sexual Orientation
An enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men, women, or both sexes
Sexual Scripts
Responses and behaviors that people learn, in much the same way that actors learn lines for a play, to guide them in sexual activities and encounters
Commercialization of Gender Ideals
The process of introducing products to the market by using advertising and sales campaigns that promise consumers they will achieve masculine and feminine ideals if they buy and use the products
Structural Constraints
The established and customary rules, policies, and day-to-day practices that affect a person's life chances
Sexism
The belief that one sex and by extension one gender is innately superior to another, justifying unequal treatment of the sexes
Feminism
In its most basic sense, a perspective that advocates equality between men and woman
Intersexuality
The interconnections among socially constructed categories of sex, gender, race, class, sexual orientation, religious affiliation, age, nationality, disability, and other statuses. These statuses combine in complex ways to influence advantages and disadvantages
Penalties
Constraints on a persons opportunities and choices as well as the price paid for engaging in certain activities, appearances, or choice deemed appropriate of someone in a particular category
Privilege
A special often unearned advantage or opportunity