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8 - Project Quality Management
Terms in this set (49)
Project Quality Management
includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. Implement, within the project's context, the organization's quality management system and, as appropriate, it supports continuous process improvement activities as undertaken on behalf of the performing organization. Works to ensure that the project requirements, including product requirements, are met and validated.
Plan Quality Management
The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards.
The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how quality will be managed and validated throughout the project.
Perform Quality Assurance
The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used. The key benefit of this process is that it facilitates the improvement of quality processes. Quality assurance seeks to build confidence that a future output or an unfinished output, also known as work in progress, will be completed in a manner that meets the specified requirements and expectations. Quality assurance contributes to the state of being certain about quality by preventing defects through the planning processes or by inspecting out defects during the work-in-progress stage of implementation.
The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes. The key benefits of this process include: (1) identifying the causes of poor process or product quality and recommending and/or taking action to eliminate them; and (2) validating that project deliverables and work meet the requirements specified by key stakeholders necessary for final acceptance.
The project management team may have a working knowledge of statistical control processes to evaluate data contained in the control quality outputs. Among other subjects, the team may find it useful to know the differences between the following pairs of terms:
Prevention (keeping errors out of the process) and inspection (keeping errors out of the hands of the customer).
Attribute sampling (the result either conforms or does not conform) and variables sampling (the result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity).
Tolerances (specified range of acceptable results) and control limits (that identify the boundaries of common variation in a statistically stable process or process performance).
As a delivered performance or result, is defined as "the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements"
As a design intent, is a category assigned to deliverables having the same functional use but different technical characteristics
A measure of exactness
An assessment of correctness
In line with achieving ISO compatibility, what does modern quality management approaches seek to do?
Minimize variation and deliver results that meet defined requirements
Understanding, evaluating, defining, and managing requirements so that customer expectations are met. This requires a combination of conformance to requirements (to ensure the project produces what it was created to produce) and fitness for use (the product or service needs to satisfy the real needs).
Prevention over inspection
Quality should be planned, designed, and built into—not inspected into the project's management or the project's deliverables. The cost of preventing mistakes is generally much less than the cost of correcting mistakes when they are found by inspection or during usage.
The PDCA (plan-do-check-act) cycle is the basis for quality improvement as defined by Shewhart and modified by Deming. In addition, quality improvement initiatives such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Six Sigma, and Lean Six Sigma could improve the quality of the project's management as well as the quality of the project's product.
Success requires the participation of all members of the project team. Nevertheless, management retains, within its responsibility for quality, a related responsibility to provide suitable resources at adequate capacities.
Cost of quality (COQ)
Refers to the total cost of the conformance work and the nonconformance work that should be done as a compensatory effort because, on the first attempt to perform that work, the potential exists that some portion of the required work effort may be done or has been done incorrectly.
1. project scope statement, which contains the project description, project deliverables, and acceptance criteria
2. Work breakdown structure, which identifies the deliverables and the work packages used to measure project performance.
3. WBS dictionary, which provides detailed information for WBS elements
Documents the accepted schedule performance measures,
including start and finish dates (Section 18.104.22.168).
Documents the accepted time interval being used to measure cost performance (Section 22.214.171.124).
Aids in identifying those stakeholders possessing a particular interest in, or having an impact on the project
Captures the requirements that the project shall meet pertaining to stakeholder expectations.
Cost of Quality
includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing nonconformance to requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements, and failing to meet requirements (rework). Failure costs are often categorized into internal (found by the project) and external (found by the customer).
Also known as fishbone diagrams or as Ishikawa diagrams. The problem statement placed at the head of the fishbone is used as a starting point to trace the problem's source back to its actionable root cause. The problem statement typically describes the problem as a gap to be closed or as an objective to be achieved. The causes are found by looking at the problem statement and asking "why" until the actionable root cause has been identified or until the reasonable possibilities on each fishbone have been exhausted. Fishbone diagrams often prove useful in linking the undesirable effects seen as special variation to the assignable cause upon which project teams should implement corrective actions to eliminate the special variation detected in a control chart.
also referred to as process maps because they display the sequence of steps and the branching possibilities that exist for a process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more outputs. Flowcharts may prove useful in understanding and estimating the cost of quality in a process.
Also known as tally sheets and may be used as a checklist when gathering data. Checksheets are used to organize facts in a manner that will facilitate the effective collection of useful data about a potential quality problem. They are especially useful for gathering attributes data while performing inspections to identify defects. For example, data about the frequencies or consequences of defects collected in checksheets are often displayed using Pareto diagrams.
A special form of vertical bar chart and are used to identify the vital few sources that are responsible for causing most of a problem's effects.
Are a special form of bar chart and are used to describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution. Unlike the control chart, the histogram does not consider the influence of time on the variation that exists within a distribution.
Are used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance. Upper and lower specification limits are based on requirements of the agreement. They reflect the maximum and minimum values allowed. There may be penalties associated with exceeding the specification limits. Upper and lower control limits are different from specification limits. The control limits are determined using standard statistical calculations and principles to ultimately establish the natural capability for a stable process. The project manager and appropriate stakeholders may use the statistically calculated control limits to identify the points at which corrective action will be taken to prevent unnatural performance. The corrective action typically seeks to maintain the natural stability of a stable and capable process. For repetitive processes, the control limits are generally set at ±3 s around a process mean that has been set at 0 s. A process is considered out of control when: (1) a data point exceeds a control limit; (2) seven consecutive plot points are above the mean; or (3) seven consecutive plot points are below the mean. Control charts can be used to monitor various types of output variables. Although used most frequently to track repetitive activities required for producing manufactured lots, control charts may also be used to monitor cost and schedule variances, volume, and frequency of scope changes, or other management results to help determine if the project management processes are in control.
Plot ordered pairs (X, Y) and are sometimes called correlation charts because they seek to explain a change in the dependent variable, Y, in relationship to a change observed in the corresponding independent variable, X. The direction of correlation may be proportional (positive correlation), inverse (negative correlation), or a pattern of correlation may not exist (zero correlation). If correlation can be established, a regression line can be calculated and used to estimate how a change to the independent variable will influence the value of the dependent variable.
Involves comparing actual or planned project practices to those of comparable projects to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
Design of Experiments
Is a statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production. DOE may be used during the Plan Quality Management process to determine the number and type of tests and their impact on cost of quality. Also plays a role in optimizing products or processes. DOE is used to reduce the sensitivity of product performance to sources of variations caused by environmental or manufacturing differences. One important aspect of this technique is that it provides a statistical framework for systematically changing all of the important factors, rather than changing the factors one at a time.
Involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection (for example, selecting ten engineering drawings at random from a list of seventy-five). Sample frequency and sizes should be determined during the Plan Quality Management process so the cost of quality will include the number of tests, expected scrap, etc.
This technique is used to generate ideas (defined in Section 126.96.36.199).
Force field analysis
These are diagrams of the forces for and against change.
Nominal group technique
This technique is used to allow ideas to be brainstormed in small groups and then reviewed by a larger group.
Quality Management Plan
a component of the project management plan that describes how the organization's quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project.
Process Improvement Plan
a subsidiary or component of the project management plan (Section 188.8.131.52). The process improvement plan details the steps for analyzing project management and product development processes to identify activities that enhance their value. Areas to consider include:
- Process boundaries. Describe the purpose of the process, the start and end of the process, its inputs and outputs, the process owner, and the stakeholders of the process.
- Process configuration. Provides a graphic depiction of processes, with interfaces identified, used to facilitate analysis.
- Process metrics. Along with control limits, allows analysis of process efficiency. Targets for improved performance. Guide the process improvement activities.
- Targets for improved performance. Guide the process improvement activities.
Specificallly describes a project or product attribute and how the control quality process will measure it. A measurement is an actual value. The tolerance defines the allowable variations to the metric. Some examples of quality metrics include on-time performance, cost control, defect frequency, failure rate, availability, reliability, and test coverage.
Are structured lists that help to verify that the work of the project and its deliverables fulfill a set of requirements. Quality checklists should incorporate the acceptance criteria included in the scope baseline.
Continuous process improvement
Iterative means for improving the quality of all processes. Reduces waste and eliminates activities that do not add value. This allows processes to operate at increased levels of efficiency and effectiveness.
The affinity diagram is similar to mind-mapping techniques in that they are used to generate ideas that can be linked to form organized patterns of thought about a problem. In project management, the creation of the WBS may be enhanced by using the affinity diagram to give structure to the decomposition of scope.
Process decision program charts (PDPC)
Used to understand a goal in relation to the steps for getting to the goal. The PDPC is useful as a method for contingency planning because it aids teams in anticipating intermediate steps that could derail achievement of the goal.
An adaptation of relationship diagrams. The interrelationship digraphs provide a process for creative problem solving in moderately complex scenarios that possess intertwined logical relationships for up to 50 relevant items. The interrelationship digraph may be developed from data generated in other tools such as the affinity diagram, the tree diagram, or the fishbone diagram.
Also known as systematic diagrams and may be used to represent decomposition hierarchies such as the WBS, RBS (risk breakdown structure), and OBS (organizational breakdown structure). In project management, tree diagrams are useful in visualizing the parent-to-child relationships in any decomposition hierarchy that uses a systematic set of rules that define a nesting relationship.
Identify the key issues and the suitable alternatives to be prioritized as a set of decisions for implementation. Criteria are prioritized and weighted before being applied to all available alternatives to obtain a mathematical score that ranks the options.
Activity network diagrams
Previously known as arrow diagrams. They include both the AOA (Activity on Arrow) and, most commonly used, AON (Activity on Node) formats of a network diagram. Activity network diagrams are used with project scheduling methodologies such as program evaluation and review technique (PERT), critical path method (CPM), and precedence diagramming method (PDM).
A quality management and control tool used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix. The matrix diagram seeks to show the strength of relationships between factors, causes, and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix.
A structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures
Follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements. This analysis also examines problems experienced, constraints experienced, and non-value-added activities identified during process operation. Process analysis includes root cause analysis—a specific technique used to identify a problem, discover the underlying causes that lead to it, and develop preventive actions.
Examination of a work product to determine if it conforms to documented standards.
A goal of the Control Quality process is to determine the correctness of deliverables. The results of performing the Control Quality process are verified deliverables. Verified deliverables are an input to Validate Scope (184.108.40.206) for formalized acceptance.
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