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68 terms

Ch 6 Bones

STUDY
PLAY
Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavitites of certain bones.
true
compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone
false
bones are classified by whether they are weight bearing or protective in function
faLSE
the periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone bc it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels.
false
short, irregular, and flat bones have marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light
false
in newborn infants the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow
false
the structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk
true
the term osteoid refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones
true
65 % of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyyapatite
true
all bones stop growing by the end of adolescence
false
an osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only.
true
the trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress.
true
each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions
true
cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accomadate mitosis of chondrocytes
true
closure of the epihyseal plate stops all bone growth
false
the structure of bone tissue suits the function. which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
spongy bone
irregular bone
compact bone
trabecular bone
compact bone
yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of?
fat
the cell responsible for secreting the matrix of the bone is the
ostecyte
osteoblast
oseteoclast
chondroctye
osteoblast
what kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo
elastic connective tissue
dense fibrous connective tissue
fibrocartilage
hyaline cartilage
hyaline cartilage
what can a defieciency of growth hormone during bone formation cause
inadequate calcification of bone
decreased osteoclast activity
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate
increased osteoclast activity
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
a fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the
epiphysis
metaphysis
diaphysis
articular cartilage
diaphysis
the term diploe refers to
internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates an armlike bar of bone?
meatus
ramus
foramen
fossa
epicondyle
ramus
ossification of the ends of long bones
is a characteristic of itramembranous bone
involves meddulary cavity formation
is produced by secondary ossification centers
takes twice as long as diaphysis
is produced by secondary ossification centers
which of the following is the single most important stimulus for the epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childohood?
parathyroid hormone
calcium
growth hormone
thyroid hormone
growth hormone
which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system
support
storage of minerals
production of blood cells
communication
communication
what is the structural unit of compact bone
osseous matrix
spongy bone
lamellar bone
the osteon
osteon
bones are covered and lined by a protective tissur called periosteum. the inner layer consists primarily of
cartilage and compact bone
marrow and osteons
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
chondrocytes and osteocytes
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
the periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called
volkmann's canals
a bony matrix w/ hyaline cartilage
perforating fibers
the struts of bones known as spicules
perforating fibers
the canal that runs through the core of each osteon is the site of
cartilage land interstitial lamellae
adipose tissue and nerve fibers
yellow marrow and spicules
blood vessels and nerve fibers
blood vessels and nerve fibers
for intramembranous ossification to take place which of the following is necessary
a bone collar forms around the cartilage model
an ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue
the cartilage matrix begins to deterioarte
a medullary cavity forms
an ossfication center forms in the fibrous connective tissue
the process of bones increasing in width is known as
closing of th epiphseal plate
epiphyseal plate closure
appostional growth
concentric growth
appositional growth
bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. which of the following cells accomplishes this process.
osteoclast
osteocyte
osteoblast
stem cell
osteoclast
which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?
calcitonin
thyroxine
parathroid hormone
estrogen
parathyroid hormone
wolff's law is concerned with
the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
cranial bones develop
from cartilage models
within fibrous membranes
from a tendon
within osseous membranes
within fibrous membranes
which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?
pineal gland
thyroid
parathyroid
spleen
thyroid
cartilage grows in two ways appositional and interstitial. what is appositional growth?
the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?
chondrocytes in the lucunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.
in the epiphyseal plate cartilage grows
by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis
by pushin the the epiphysis away from diaphysis
from the edges inwared
in a circular fashion
by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
osteogenis is the process of
making a cartilage model of the fetal bone
bone destruction to liberate calcium
bone formation
making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage
bone formation
lengthwise long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through
interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plate
growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. which hormones is of greatest importance for bone growth during infancy and childhood.
thryroid hormone
somatomedins
growth hormone
prolactin
growth hormone
normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of
calcium, phosphate, and vitami D
postassium, phospahte , and vitamin D
soidum, calcium, and vitamin e
vitamin d, phosphate , and chloride
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin d
what tissue forms the model for endochondrial ossification.
cartilage
membranea
fascia
bones
cartilage
the scapulae are considered part of what skeleton?
axial
vertbral
appendicular
arm
appendicular
the scapula is classified as a _____ bone
long
short
flat
irregular
flat
bones that form within tendons are classified as ____ bones
flat
axial
sesamoid
irregular
sesamoid
an example of an axial bones is the
scapula
ilium
femur
sternum
sternum
phalanges are classified as ____ bones
short
long
flat
irregular
long
the structual unit of compact bone is the
osteon
osteoctye
lamella
central canal
osteon
osteocytes are found in
central canals
perforating canals
lacunae
lamellae
lacunae
what anchors the periosteum to the underlying bone
osteocytes
trabeculae
canliculi
perforating fibers
canaliculi
in bone, collagen is found in the
lacunae
central canals
lamellae
canaliculi
lamellae
the shaft of a long bone is called the
epiphysis
diaphysis
metaphysis
epiphyseal line
diaphysis
the membrane that covers most of the outer surface of a long bone is the
epiphyseal plate
endosteum
metaphysis
periosteum
periosteum
which part of the long bone are you studying if you are lookig at the articular cartilage?
osteon
ephiphysis
metaphysis
diaphysis
epishysis
which of the following would not be found in the long bone of a 30 yr old adult
red bone marrow
articular cartilage
yellow bone marrow
epiphyseal plate
epiphyseal plate
spongy bone is made up of small, flat pieces of bone called
perforating canals
canliculi
osteons
trabeculae
trabeculae
which of the following is not a bone projection
head
meatus
tuberoisty
crest
meatus
which bone marking would most likely be part of a joint?
condyle
epicondyle
meatus
crest
condyle
the bone cell that produces the bony matrix in a developing bone is the
osteocyte
osteoclast
osteoblast
chondrocyte
osteoblast
the primary ossification center of a long bone is found in the
epiphysis
diaphysis
periosteum
endosteum
diaphysis
which structure plays an important role in widening long bones
medullary cavity
articlar cartilage
periosteum
ephiphyseal plate
periosteum
a vitamin that is important for calcium absorption in the intestine is
vitamin a
vitamin c
vitamin d
all of above
vitamin d
newly produced bony matirx that has not yet been mineralized is called
epiphyseal plate
osteoid seam
calcification front
articular cartilage
osteoid seam
which of the follwing is not a stage of bone repair
callus formation
hematoma formation
bone collar formation
bone remodeling
bone collar formation
comact bone is replaced every ____ yrs
1
3
10
20
10