73 terms

Music Mid-Term

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Gregorian Antiphon, "In Paradisum"
Medieval, mixolydian mode (ends on G), chant, sacred text and setting, non-metered, not dynamic (i.e. constant and stable), purpose was for prayer, meditation and daily structure, monophony
Hildegard of Bingen, "Columba Aspexit"
Medieval, chant, sacred text and setting, non-metered, wider range, melismatic, faster tempo, purpose for religious ecstasy, addition of the drone, monophony
Bernart de Ventadorn, "La dousa votz"
Medieval, troubadour song, secular, vocal solo with instrumental accompaniment, metered, homophony
Perotin, "Viderunt Omnes"
Medieval, sacred, organum, Notre Dame polyphony (written over a very slow chant, up to 4 voices), monophony to polyphony
Josqui Desprez, Kyrie from Pange Lingua Mass
Renaissance; each movement based on a paraphrase of the "Pange lingua gloriosi; texture of the four voices is imitative polyphony
Thomas Weelkes, Madrigal "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending"
Renaissance madrigal, english, word-painting, homophonic, imitative polyphony on last line
Giovanni Palestrina, "Pope Marcellus Mass"
Renaissance, polyphonic, more clear text setting, use of thirds and sixths as consonances, sacred
Claudio Monteverdi, opera The Coronation of Poppea
Baroque,
Antonio Vivaldi, The Four Seasons
Baroque; concerto for violin and orchestra; four concertos, 1 for each season; each concerto is supplied with a poem that describes season; three movements in each concerto )fast-slow-fast)
Johann Sebastian Bach, "Brandenburg" Concerto no. 5, 1st movement
Baroque instrumental, concerto gross (multiple instruments playing solo together), ritornello form, concertino of violin, flute, and harpsichord, harpsichord cadenza
Johann Sebastian Bach, Cantata "Christ lag in Todesbanden"
Baroque;
George Frideric Handel, Aria Sesto "La giustizia" from Julius Caesar
Baroque opera, de capo aria, orchestral ritornello, expresses one specific emotion (static)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Duet of Don Giovanni and Zerlina "La ci darem la mano"
opera buffa
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Symphony no. 40 1st movement
sonata form,
Joseph Haydn, Symphony no. 94 2nd and 3rd movements
...
Pope Gregory
monk that wrote chants in an attempt to unite all of the monasteries
Hildegard of Bingen
wrote music mostly for mass and the Divine Office at her monastery
Bernart de Ventadorn
1130-1190; troubadour during medieval times, La Dousa Votz
Leonin and Perotin
Medieval composers;
Guillaume de Machaut
1300-1377; composed motets, secular song, and a complete setting of the Mass Ordinary; largely responsible for raising the art of the polyphonic secular song (chanson) from a simplistic genre to a complexity on par with motet composition
Josquin Desprez
1485; Renaissance composer, Missa Pangfe Lingua
Thomas Weelkes
1600; Renaissance composer, As Vesta as from Latmos Hill Descending,
Martin Luther
1600; German preacher, "The Ninety-Five These" criticized practices of the church including selling of indulgences, emphasis on communal participation in worship
Giovanni Pierluigi Palestrina
Renaissance composer; Pope Marcellus Mass
Claudio Monteverdi
1607/1642; early opera/madrigal composer
Henry Purcell
1659-1695; baroque composer, composed sacred, instrumental and theater music, organist at Westminster Abbey, wrote one opera "Dido and Aeneas"
Antonio Vivaldi
1678-1741; Baroque composer, The Four Seasons, solo concerto
Johann Sebastian Bach
1685-1750; baroque composer, concerto grosso, Brandenburg Concerto no. 5
George Frideric Handel
1685-1759; baroque composer,
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
1756-1791; classical composer, symphony no 40. in G minor
Joseph Haydn
1732-1809; classical composer, Symphony no. 94
chant
way of reciting words to music
recitation
pitch on which the text is sung is repeated again and again
psalmody
the singing of psalms or similar sacred canticles, especially in public worship
hymnody
singing or composition of hymns
melismatic
many notes for single word
syllabic
one pitch per word/syllable
troubadour
poet-musician performers to the wealthy during Medieval times
fin' amours
"courtly love", refined love, love from afar, unattainable ideal woman, knightly man, paradoxically joyful and sorrowful
canso
Medieval genre; most important and popular song type, centered around courtly love, simple rhyme scheme
monophony
single unaccompanied melody; simplest texture
polyphony
multiple voices performing independent melodies
homophony
single voice with accompaniment
organum
note to note harmonization
rhythmic modes
...
Ars Nova
more complicated/complex polyphonies, disruption and experimentation; monophonic and polyphonic song, chance, motet
mass and the five parts of Mass Ordinary
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, (set to the same text each week)
motet 14th century
considered an elite sophisticated form, polyphony, hybrid of sacred and secular, bottom voice was sacred Latin chant and upper voices were written with secular vernacular texts, Machaut
motet 16th century
relatively short composition, homophony and imitative polyphony, usually religious/sacred, more possibilities than the Mass in terms of text, Palestrina
paraphrase
adaptation of a tune to emphasize or transform its melodic character; way of dealing with musical material that emphasizes its sonority over its formal structure
madrigal
form of aristocratic poetry that flourished at the Italian courts, polyphonic, word-painting
word-painting
literal or symbolic reflection of words in music, typically associated with Renaissance madrigals, often focused on superficial meaning for witty effect
Reformation
abrupt end to the unity of the Catholic Church , move to vernacular language (German), Music emphasized congregational participation, use of vernacular, relatively simple to sing
monody
"concerted" form, solo voice, figured bass accompaniment, intended to represent the flow of speech in music, example of homophony
opera seria
depicted nobility and royalty, closer to characteristics of Baroque opera
opera buffa
comedic, depicted the common man
aria
used for emotional outburst, typically for very important dramatic moments, defined rhythm and meter, fully orchestrated, composed melody reflects emotion not speech, typically strophic
aria de capo
became well established as the main vocal structure in not only opera, but in cantatas, oratorios, etc. three part A-B-A; ritornello form, second A section enhanced with runs, embellishments, and cadenzas
duet
two people singing the same melody
recitative
used for dialogue, less important dramatic moments, free rhythmically, sparsely orchestrated, melody follows the contours of speech, typically through-composed
basso continuo
accompanying part that includes a bass line and harmonies
concerto
instrumental form based on the opposition of two dissimilar bodies of sound
ritornello
thematic returns in the orchestra or larger group
solo
...
concertino
smaller group of instruments in concerto gross
symphony
extended musical composition written for orchestras that has four full movements
sonata form
exposition, development, recapitulation
variations
departure from the familiarity of the melody, rather than a ground bass
minuet
...
medieval
800-1400; chant as structural foundation, non-imitative polyphony, fourths and fifths as consonances, oriented towards God and mathematical principles
renaissance
1400- 1600; chant as melodic material, imitative polyphony and homophony, thirds and sixths as consonances, oriented toward human experience and sonority
baroque
1600-1750; rhythm and meter become more strictly defined, from "modality" to "tonality", polyphonic to homophonic, combinations of instruments and voices
classical
1750-1800; simple, tuneful melody, varied rhythmic gestures, built on musical contrast, Period Phrase structure (measures create phrases, phrases create periods, periods create forms)