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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
American Revolution Midterm
Terms in this set (68)
participants of the war and their descendants
a legal constitutional struggle between freedom loving americans vs. tyranny
believed if this didn't happen they would have been enslaved by the king
americans good british evil
1788: constitution, fulfilled the revolution
independence was inevitable, progressive, and a good thing.
used the rhetoric of the rev at face value
would open a path for oppressed people everywhere --> chain reaction
ex. George Bancroft
(Late 19th century, early 20th centuries)
Thoughts of first professional historians
proud of being scientific on history and being impartial
not a hobby but a profession
attacked the whig historians for being too naive and simplistic and too pro american
places the rev into an empire wide context and too at the british side of the story
they didn't see tryanny, but americans over reacting. british policies were actually pretty fair
not eithers side's fault, independence was just inevitable.
Some of them regretted that this occurred.
They were influenced by the times, such as imperialism being a good thing and great britian and us becoming allies against german rising threat
Ex. Charles M. Andrews
Focused on the american side of the revolution
they saw dicision and hypocracy
believed it was really americans vs. americans
who was going to rule at home? who was going to be in charge once it was all over?
Economic Determinists: man is only dictated by money and thats why the americans rebelled.
it was all just rhetoric and a smokescreen for economics and money.
influences: ltos of strikes, trust busting, communist revolution, lots of emphasis on class so they really see the rev as a class struggle.
by the 1930s it had taken over the textbooks
Ex. Charles Beard
wrote An Economic Interpretation of the Consitution
the constitution is a perversion of the revolution
he studied all the men who wrote it and believed they were not acting in the best interest of the people, but in their own interests and their own rule.
"the constitution is essentially an economic document"
Neo Whig Interpretations
New and more sophisticated look at the whig ideas
the revolution was not a class struggle, but a legal, constitutional struggle after all.
The american revolutionaries meant what they said
the colonists truly believed that there was a plot to enslave them, whether or not this was true doesn't matter, what matters is they believed and feared this.
influenes: cold war, communism, rhetoric was important
Ex. Bernard Bailyn
wrote The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution in 1967
Causes of the Rev
Long term underlying causes (must exist but don't start it)
modernizing country, praid american pop growth and british debt
Short term cause or trigger: lexington and concord
increasing misery in society is a marxist idea
others believe it occurs when there is an increase in prosperity. (americas case)
Alexis de Tocqueville
French philospher who wrote on he american state of living and the rev
when you have a gap between expectation and reality of life getting better, people are likely to revolt "Revolution of Rising Expectations"
1938 wrote The Anatomy of Revolution
looked for scientfic patterns in popular rev (where the majority overthrows the minority)
All go through:
1.) The old regime: suffer from certain problems and long term causes, typically there is a group in society that is denied access to the ruling class.
2.) Overthrow of the Old Regime: some dramatic event triggers the revolution, something the government does that is not popular, a small group of aggitators will lead the revolution, but a majority of people will agree. Tries to put it down forcefully, but quickly fails.
3.) Rule of the Moderates: moderate revolutionary leaders, level headed reformers but common sense makes little sense, and they are attacked by the extremists who believe they aren't taking it far enough
4.) Accession of Extremists: power then falls to a small group of fanatics, they become tyrants themselves, usually creating a dictatorship in the form of a committee
5.) Reign of terror: attempt to bring about reform by force, too much, too fast
6.) Thermidor: a return to the way things were before. The leaders of the terror become public enemies. It does not return to the old regime but in that direction
7.) Final Results: limited change, the worst is now gone, there is political reform, but little social reform, and new people are in power. An ideology is left behind that is powerful and unfulfilled.
18th century movement that originated in europe and then caught on in america. grew out of the european scientific revolution
a change in the way of thinking.
A culture war: science vs religion
god who works in scientific ways, like clockmaker --> wind it up, let it tick. humans have to figure it out on their own.
Human reason can triumph over ignorance
science became a hobby for gentlemen, esp bc you were wealthy
science spread to politics and economics
the job of the government is not the glory of God, but the rights of man, itis the governments job to protect life, liberty, and property
Wealth of nations
Common Sense written about the american revolution
failure in all things. didn't write name on it.
main writer of the declaration of independence
Charles Wilson Peale
portrait painter who painted all the founding fathers.
opened a natural hsitory museum in phully
tried to improve output of farms.
lived here at La Salle
poor family, self educated,
printer apprentice for brother who was cruel, ran away from boston to philly
wasn't a great family man
a printer, penn gazette and old richard's almanac
changed from business man to gentlemen philosopher and philantropist at 42
first library, UPenn, Fire dept, first hospital, first milita (bc Quakers)
scientist:: lightening rod, franklin stove, biofocals, etc ben franklin with the key and the kite, you see it right?
postmaster general for colonies
French loved him as the typical "noble savage"
ben franklin's paper that he printed that made him a fortune.
Poor Richard's Almanac
information for farmers that allowed him to make so much money that he could retire at 42.
The Great Awakening
one intellectual source of the rev
a lot of religious leaders were troubled by the enlightement and didn't want it to overshadow religion bc even the clergy was capitvated by it.
a religious revival where poeple suddenly converted to religion by the urging of religious leaders
New lights vs old lights: the evangelicals vs. the people they were attacking.
began in colonies and spread to europe
Began simultaneously win Jersey, Penn, and Mass in 1730s.
a reaction against rationalism through life alone, predestination.
old lights were too complacenent, too intellectural, and too boring, throw out old light ministers. don't worry about wealth, worry about your soul.
salvation through life alone, predestination
it's okay to be poor. actually it's a good thing! because you're going to heaven in the end, since poverty is a sign that you'll be saved. appealed esp to the slaves.
old lights said the new lights just wanted to cause trouble and make a show, and that you can't understand God through emotion, just analyzing scripture.
leader of revivals in jersey
gave a sermon called The Dangers of an Uncoverted Ministry trying to get back puritan life
"holy laughing" mocking laughter that would terrify people
Leader of revivals in mass
from england. trained as actor, but became anglican minister.
traveled through british empire as a traveling minister
came to US used modern marketing strategies like "rock and roll bands" would use newspapers to build up hype.
could preach to 20,000 in open air. 18th century televangelist
close business ties with franklin
not original, but very good at oration. he could do the same sermon over and over because he traveled from place to place.
new london, ct. pretend to be physically attached by devil.
great awakening, south carolina, felt salves should be released. believed he was the next moses and almost drowned himself accidentally trying.
American Invation of Canada
1775 american contiental army invaded canada to make it a 14th colony. got all the way to the gates of quebec and then were killed.
before this they heard a a sermond telling them to go invade and went to the crypt of george whitefield and took pieces of his robe to the battlefield.
Obstacles to Independence
new england colonies vs. southern colonies
countries should have colonies and the whole point of the colonies is to enrich the mother country
they should supply needed raw materials
purchase finished, manufactured good from the other country
solve the mother country's unemployment problem
it should compliement the mother country
putting mercantlism into practice
1.) enumerated products: shippped to england only (tobacco, rice, sugar cane)
2.) all imports into colonies have to come from england, even if england didn't make it
3.) all trade had to take place on british ships
4.) colonists were forbidden to manufacture certain things (like the hat act that said hats could only be made in england)
were actually great for the colonists:
gave them free protection of the british royal navy
british government actually paid the colonies to make things that were important for natural defense and free trade throughout the entire british empire.
but the problem was that the british were arrogant toward the colonies and were sub british
Seven Years War/ French and Indian War
the ultimate British super power because they blew away the the french but also planted the seeds for the rev
bunch of wars between the british and the french lead up to this
eurocentric name b/c it was actually 9 yrs, but only 7 were european.
british try to push french out of ohio country, moving into the same area. when they don't leave, british attacks (george washington)
cooperation between british and colonies
first intercolonial congress
ben franklin was delegate. persuades colonies to unite the colonies into a league. they recommended they create a confederation within the british empire.
creates join, or die campaign.
the colonies reject it. the british become convinced it was impossible to unite the colonies
they didn't feel like they needed their own gov, just to be taken seriously as englishmen
Conquest of Acadia
early british success in 7 yrs war that is quickly overshadowed by defeat.
started out in virginia, headed into western penn with the goal of capturing french fort ducane in pitt
fight ended in brtish defeat. considered battles of Monongahela and the battle of the wilderness
Washington was an aide but then everyone gets hurt so he takes the lead, shows heorism getting the soldiers out of a terrible defeat. had four bullets in coat and two horses killed under him.
William Pitt, the elder
takes ministership in 1757
launches 3 pronged attach on canada, turns yrs war around
Capture of Quebec
british shouldn't have been table to take it but they did because Moncalm brought them into an open field instead of fighting from inside the city. led to taking montreal and really the rest of canada.
british wins, both generals die.
General James Wolfe
British General under William Pitt, takes quebec. the troops shouldnt have been able to take it because they were depleted and the city was so well fortified
but Montcalm brought them into the plains of abrahamm and the british win.
General Marquis de Montcalm
french general in 7 yrs war who made the terrible mistake to fight the british on the plains of abraham, leading to the capture of quebec and french defeat.
Peace of Paris 1763
ended the 7 yrs war, british finally seem to have built an undefeatable empire.
americans filled with british national pride.
but british and american differences come to light and british debt causes conflict, the british troops take all the glory and look at americans as lazy and cowardly.
sets up the idea that the americans don't need the british anymore if the french aren't around and the french want revenege.
Radical Whig Ideology
colonists convinced british would enslave them, rebelling is only alternative
wanted a society without great differences in wealth, classless, a middle class society, no conflicts of rich vs poor.
there is a struggle between liberty and power. government officals will destroy liberty for power. people should be vigilant, if it gets corrupt people need to throw it out before their liberty is gone.
a vote is a weapon, the ballot box is first line of defense.
1.) standing army in peace time
2.) takes away trial by jury bc king appoints judge
3.) no taxation without representation
radical whig who wrote for the extreme left whig fringe group in england. americans loved reading radical whig writings. he was famous.
was in parliment, got kicked out, got relcted, and then this happens 4 more times. so the government just arrests him for sedition just to get him to be quiet.
a part of the St. George's Field Massacre
john wilkes booth named after him.
started in the 7yrs war
worked hard to achieve goals
virginia regiment as good as any british one
he felt radical whig ideology spoke to him.
would become general of the contiental army
origins: political system, capitalism, freedom of religion
a result of independence not a cause
George Grenville convinced parliement to do this tax
on printed paper products and legal documents
you had to buy stamps to put on all of these from a tax collector
money would go toward defense of the colonies
enforcement: tried in a court with no juries
it was not a heavy tax, but it was about the principle. if you gave in now, they could raise it later.
grenville was like...but you have virtual representation because each member of parliment looks out for the entire britsh empire.
americans were like...no. Actual representaion please.
Stamp Act Congress
called by the house of burgesses.. Patrick Henry
better cooperation than the albany conference. now developing interest in uniting against british policy. make americans begin to think of themselves as americans
enacted economic boycotts of british products as a form ofprotest: colony level, town level, individual level. like if a colony didn't participate, other colonies would reject doing business with them.
Sons of Liberty
a secret society protecting the rights of colonists esp against taxation.
during the time of the stamp act, they were violent against british officals ONLY if they upheld the act, and against any who would not particpate in the boycotts. this included tar and feathering which was both humiliating and physical torture.
1766, parliment repeals the stamp act .
colonists view this as a win, but it actually had nothing to do with them: a new prime minister had a new american policy.
King George III
1760 comes to throne.
tough toward colonies
they must submit to parliament, if not voluntarily then by force.
he wanted to rule in the best interests of the empire, but was a lousy politician.
taxes on lead, paint, glass, and tea.
standing army is formed becasuse there is resitence in boston, even though its only verbal everywhere else.
1768 new minister.
saw a way to make the colony pay taxes implimented the townshend acts
british soldiers stationed in boston.
a barbers apprentice comes to collect a debt. the redcoats make fun of him. a crowd forms and starts throwing rocks at the soliders.
a shot rang out from british side. 3 killed, six injuried.
put on trial, john adams to their defense. got most of them aquitted and the others just charged with manslaughter.
St. George's Field Massacre
John wilkes is placed in prison for sedition. his supporters surround the prison crying "wilkes and liberty". red coats sent in, a squabble, shots fired, people injuried.
americans felt boston massacre was their version of this. this wasn't a coinciedence. there must be tyranny on both sides of the sea.
Boston Tea Party
started with colonial ports chasing away ships without ever unloading the tea. but the government in boston wouldn't let ships leave unless the tea wwas unloaded, hoping for a showdown
342 chests of tea dumped into the boston harbor.
they acted in a very legal way, they had to break locks to get to the tea so they had lock smiths fix them. they were only targeting the tea.
dressed as native americans because they didn't want to take on a british persona.
was originally called the destruction of the tea.
1830 called tea party, meant to be used as a cutesy, harmless name.
Empire Wide Conspiracy
both sides of the sea had tyranny.
a new prime minister. wanted to resign because he knew that the king's hard line policy with the colonies would end in disaster but the king bullied him into staying because he was such a good politician.
gets parliment to taketo take back the townshend acts. he does this but leaves the tea act. at first, americans grumble but pay the tax.
screwed up with the Tea Act of 1773.
East India Trading Company
the big trading company that the americans had access to because they were british people, and the british punish the americans by not letting them trade with them due to the tea party.
1773, said the east india trading company has a monopoly on tea in the colonies.
north puts this in place because his problem was not the colonies but the EITC having such a surplus of tea because there was all this boycotting. many members of parliment had invested in this company and he chose to protect their interests. WRONG.
he lost the support of the merchants becasue they were the middle men that he was cutting out and that meant everyone was angry, even though the people were getting a little bit cheaper tea.
he thought it was a win-win-win: cheaper tea, company survives, he gets his tax stand.
but the merchants now supported the sons of liberty and the people thought the cheaper price was a trick to giving in to the principle of taxtion.
1774 designed to punish boston and mass
1.) port of bston closed until the tea is paid for meaning it couldnt export anything or important anything but food.
2.) democracy was ended in mass. the colonial assembly was suspended. thomas gage gets put in hutchinson's place. and now there's martial law because he's a military leader.
3.) british officals have to be tried in london, not in the colonies.
these become known in america as the intolerable acts
the british thought they were isolating a trouble maker, but instead the rest of america feared the same would happen to them so they supported mass.
First Continental Congress
called by viriginia colony
met in philly
royal goveners started suspending colonial governments sot he colonists formed their own illegal governments.
thomas gage was never able to enforce martial law anywhere in mass but boston.
met in carpenters hall, owned by an artisan guild
the most radical delegates take control
Mass: john and sam adams
Virginia: washington, patrick henry, and richard henry lee
they say paeliament does not have the power to tax the colonies...and actually really they don't hvae any right to have power over the colonies at all. congress and the parliment should be equal. and should deal directly with the king. so they do just that.
king george delcares that they are out of the king's protection, they are in full revolt. he pushed them away.
Second Cotinental Congress
a race for the image of who was better off at lexington and concord. the americans didn't tell the whole truth but they got it out first, and it was more compelling. gage was cold and calculating, even though his numbers were correct
Declaration of Independence
really propaganda. written by a committee, not just thomas jefferson. sent to britain, directly to the king.
the vote for independence was mainly led by john adams and he convinced the colonies, even asking someone to stay home so that it was unanimous. some wouldn't sign. others knew this meant treason and were willing.
Reverend Mason Locke Weems
George Washington's early biographers who started all the myths about him. because he was more interested in character and nation building than accuracy. was a behavior manual for little kids. and he was working on a national identity that still didn't fully exist after the rev.f
The Fabian Strategy
washington would draw out the war, waiting for the other side to quit, only engaged in battle when he knew it was a sure thing. he did this because he knew his army was weak. it pained his pride to fight like this but he understood that this was how he was going to win.
"The Indispensable Man"
the idea that without washington, you could not win.
he wanted this. wanted to live forever in the pages of history books, go down as a great leader, in his selfishness he became selfless.
Lexington and Concord
the kick off to the american revolutionary war
gage does a raid, everyone finds out. country side gets hostile.
second raid is a go.
paul revere and riders let everyone know.
as redcoats reach the arms in lexington, they are met by minutemen and other milita fighters. there is a showdown and then someone fires. 8 colonists die, 1 british soldier. then the british move on to concord to get what is left there, not realizing the colonists got to it already and the british fight it out until they are able to retreat to safety thanks to their navy. but the americans have started out the revolution strong.
The Second Battle of Lexington and Concord
Propaganda battle. to show england who was in the right. gage was too calculating and the people bought into the american dramatization.
Battle of Bunker Hill/ Breeds Hill
called bunker hill because that's what they were commanded to protect, however, instead they protected breed's hill because it was smaller and closer to boston.
"don't shoot til you see the whites of their eyes." britsh retreat twice but then americans run out of ammunition and hand to hand combat but no bayonets, so they had to retreat.
however, it was a moral booster for the americans because they inflicted a lot of casulties, more than they took.
British general who came to lexington and concord, new found respect for americans. Way higher than thomas gage except in the army. Got the troops back to boston alive.
by thomas paine. written about america pre revolution and how the people should not submit to a government that isn't taking care of them. it is only logical to revolt when you have so much proof of tyranny in front of you
Declare your independence america! reachd a wider audience than any other piece of writing in the coloinies.
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