41 terms

Chapter 10: Energy Consumption

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MOST ENERGY CAN BE ASSIGNED TO ONE OF THREE CATEGORIES
1. transportation
2. industry
3. buildings
EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF THE CONCENTRATION OF ENERGY IN A SOURCE
determines the amount of useful energy that can be extracted from a given volume or mass of fuel. Concentrated fuels are typically easier to transport and use that are less concentrated fuels. Modern transportation, industry, agriculture, and buildings rely on highly concentrated fuels like coal and gasoline
GLOBAL ENERGY USE
energy use is unevenly distributed around the world
- has increased each year for several decades
- some highly developed countries have kept their energy use constant over the past decade
ENERGY SERVICES
benefits of energy
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
using less energy to accomplish a given task, as, for example, new technology
- a measure of the amount of available energy in a source that is transformed into useful work
ENERGY CONSERVATION
using less energy, as, for example, by reducing energy use and waste
EXPLAIN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENERGY SERVICES & EFFICIENCY
more efficient practices & technologies allow us to get more energy services from a given amount of an energy resource
DESCRIBE SOME ADVANTAGES OF CONSERVING ENERGY
- PRO: saves money, reduces pollution, reduces our reliance on foreign energy sources
- CON: reducing quality of life
ELECTRICITY
(in context of usable energy) is the flow of electrons in a wire
EXPLAIN WHY ELECTRICITY IS A FLEXIBLE FORM OF ENERGY
- can be easily converted into light, heat, or motion
- can be released in very small, precise amounts in delicate electronic equipment or with enough power to move a freight train at high speeds
- can be generated from almost any energy source
PROVIDE EXAMPLES OF THE ROLE HYDROGEN COULD PLAY AS A FUTURE FUEL SOURCE
- could substitute for gasoline in automobiles and other forms of transportation
- most promising way to use hydrogen is in a fuel cell (electrochemical cell similar to a battery, but produce power as long as they are supplied with fuel) - provide energy for buildings
- could possibly replace batteries in cell phones & laptops (fuel cells)
DESCRIBE THE ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF STORING ENERGY
- PRO: will be able to use energy even if it may not be available
- CON: each time energy is released, less of it is available for use
DISCUSS HOW POLICY DECISIONS SHAPE ENERGY RESOURCE & TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
- can encourage particular energy resources (subsidies, funding) or discourage them (not subsidizing)
- can influence which technologies get used
ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)
electrons moving back and forth quickly within a wire
COGENERATION
the production of two useful forms of energy from the same fuel
DIRECT CURRENT (DC)
electrons flowing through a wire in a single direction
ELECTROLYSIS
the process of using electricity to separate water into O2 and H2
ENERGY DENSITY
the amount of energy contained within a given volume of an energy source
GIGAJOULES (GJ)
1 gigajoule = 10^9 joules (or one thousand million joules)
JOULE
derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heat in the International System of Units
- equals the energy expended (work done) in applying a force of 1 newton through a distance of 1 meter (N*m) or in passing an electric current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm for one second
- named after English physicist James Prescott Joule
NEWTON
- unit of measurement
- standard unit of force
- equal to the force that produces an acceleration of one meter per second on a mass of one kilogram
PAYBACK TIME
time necessary to recover the cost of investing in a particular technology
SUBSIDY
a form of government support (i.e.-public financing or tax breaks) given to a business/institution to promote that group's activity
ZERO-NET ENERGY
buildings that produce as mush or more energy than they use
WHAT COUNTRIES HAVE INCREASED THEIR ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY MORE THAN 50% IN THE PAST DECADE
China and India
WHAT ENCOURAGES ENERGY CONSERVATION
- purchasing and managing food more carefully
- working fewer, but longer days
- eliminating subsidies
ENERGY USE IN THE U.S. IS ABOUT THE SAME AS IT WAS A DECADE AGO. TRUE/FALSE
true
ENERGY IS REQUIRED TO CAPTURE ENERGY. TRUE/FALSE
true
WHAT WAS NOT AN ENERGY SOURCE DURING PREINDUSTRIAL TIMES
coal
WHAT ARE BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY & CONSERVATION PRACTICES
- buying time to explore new strategy alternatives
- improving economy's productivity
- generating new business opportunities
- creating energy resource savings
ELECTROLYSIS GENERATES CONSIDERABLE AMOUNTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE. TRUE/FALSE
false
CONSUMERS CAN SAVE ENERGY AT HOME BY IMPLEMENTING CERTAIN METHODS EXCEPT
planting shade trees along the North and East sides of their home
THE WORLD'S MAIN SOURCE OF ELECTRICITY IS
coal
WHAT DOES NOT CONTRIBUTE TO ENERGY SAVINGS IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS
use of incandescent light bulbs
SOLAR POWER IS SUBJECT TO...
- seasonal variability
- daily variability
- regional variability
HIGHLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES CONSUME SIGNIFICANTLY MORE ENERGY PER PERSON THAN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRUE/FALSE
true
WHAT ARE CONCERNS REGARDING OUR NATIONAL ENERGY SOURCE
security, economics, & environment
ENERGY INTENSITY
measure of energy use per dollar of GDP
- statistical estimate of a country's/regional's total energy consumption divided by its gross national product
FLEXIBLE FUEL VEHICLES (FFVs) CAN RUN ON
gasoline, ethanol, mixed fuel, compressed natural gas
SUSTAINABLE DESIGN IS ALWAYS MORE ECONOMICAL THAN TRADITIONAL DESIGN PRACTICES. TRUE/FALSE
false
FUEL CELL IS A WAY THAT ELECTRIC UTILITIES CAN MEET FUTURE POWER NEEDS BY HELPING CONSUMERS CONSERVE ENERGY & INCREASE ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRUE/FALSE
false