Chapter 5 MGMT 5970
Terms in this set (38)
implemented in anticipation of, or in response to trends and developments
Those that just happen, or have to happen, in response to unforeseen events, such as the sudden opening of new market opportunities, or accidents and failures, or major geopolitical developments
specific initiative that solves a problem, and/or makes improvements, in ways that do not present a challenge to current methods or thinking.
-disruptive and discontinuous?
-or adaptive and continuity
adaptive and implies a degree of continuity and order
Leads to organizational transformation, by introducing new products, services, and ways of doing business, based on creative lateral thinking that alters current core assumptions.
-disruptive and discontinuous?
-or adaptive and continuity
disruptive and discontinuous, and is captured in the expression, "move to get to a new position"
based on the habitual questioning of assumptions and points of view, contributing to what can be a chaotic process of continual adaptation, self-renewal, and self-organization
Another metaphor used to categorize different types of change
At the bottom of the change scale is
At the middle of the change scale is
At the top of the change scale is
Incremental and first order change according to depth of change figure
Second-Order or Transformational Change according to depth of change figure
Third-Order Change according to depth of change figure
(off the scale, disruptive)
What is the first practical change management implication of these categories of change
matching solutions with problems
What is the second practical change management implication of these categories of change
concerns the nature of the change management task
what is the third practical change management issue of these categories of change
concerns management reputation
Theory of punctuated equilibrium
most organizations experienced periods of stability that were interrupted on occasion by more profound changes
4 benefits of PMOs
1. reduce the number of projects that fail.
2. deliver projects under budget and ahead of schedule.
3. improve productivity.
4. increase cost savings.
4 factors contributing to the effectiveness of PMOs
1. Need Senior Executive Champion
2. role must be clearly understood.
3. the change professionals who staff the PMO must have the respect of functional departments.
4. PMOs need to collaborate with functional departments in the development of initiatives, and not act as "change police."
A key driver of change
finding new ways to lead, organize, work, motivate, and manage.
improve existing products and processes (more fuel efficient car)
not necessarily involve chaos and upheaval. What is disrupted is often traditional ways of thinking and acting. (digital photography)
according to hammer(2004) operational innovations are often driven by________
catalysts who are committed to finding and exploiting such opportunities, and who are relentless in their attempts to convince senior managment
The two patterns that adoption of innovation follows
1. small numbers adopt, followed by "takeoff," achieving a critical mass of adopters.
2. The pace slackens as saturation is reached, typically short of 100 percent
What is more difficult to implement and why? Sustaining or disruptive innovations
disruptive because they are often viewed as risky.
6 properties that increases the probability of an innovation being accepted
1. Advantageous when compared with existing practice
2. Compatible with existing practices
3. easy to understand
4. observable in demonstration sites
6. adaptable to fit local needs
Organizations need to encourage these 5 habits
1. stimulating employees to connect ideas
2. challenge accepted practices.
3. watch what others are doing
4. take risks and try things out
5. get out of the company to meet others
Ann Cunliffe(2008) argues that organization cultural is important because of these 4 things
1. shapes the public image of an organization
2. influences organizational effectiveness
3. provides direction for the company
4. helps to attract, retain, and motivate staff
3 levels of change
1. some outcomes(increasing revenue) can be achieved without changing working practices(selling noncore assets)
2. staff can be asked to change working practices in line with current thinking(find ways to reduce waste)
3. involves fundamental changes in an organizational culture, in collective thinking and behavior-from reactive to proactive, hierarchical to collegial, inward-looking to externally focused.
three conditions for changing mindsets at level 3
1. surrounding structures(reward and recognition systems) must be in line with the new behavior.
2. employees must have the skills to do what it requires.
3. they must see people they respect modelling it actively.
three strategic opportunities in digitization
1. enhancing interaction
2. improving management decisions. ( big data) and (internet of things)
3. creating new business models
5 digital advancement issues
1. problems finding staff with digital skills
2.organizational structures unsuitable for developing digital businesses
3. inflexible business processes, deigned to handle conventional initiatives
4. lack of good quality information to inform decisions
5. inability to adopt an experimentation mindset
Social media has 3 valuable properties
1. they provide "multidirectional" flows of information between friends, colleagues, organizations, and management, compared with the static "one-way" communication from conventional web pages.
2. they allow users to develop new connections, encouraging collaboration across boundaries such as organizational silos.
3. These are "low friction" tools; they are attractive, pervasive, easy to use, and no specialized equipment is required.
percentage of customers who use social media to raise complaints
over 50 percent of the US
3 major change management challenges in these technology developments
1. finding ways to exploit digitization and social media applications effectively to achieve organizational goals.
2. finding the best "fit" between new digital technologies and online tools, the social system of the organization, including the needs, interest, and preferences of employees
3. design and redesign effective sociotechnical systems when the technologies involved are moving