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"The Biology of the Mind" 3rd Ed., by (Gazzaniga, Ivry, Mangun, 2009)

In the 1950's many neurologists knew that most seizures originated in what area of the brain?

Medial aspect of the Temporal Lobe

H.M. (The Patient) had a bilaterally temporal lobectomy, True or False?


H.M. could not remember meeting certain individuals just after meeting. After meeting a person, them leaving the room, they would return and H.M. did not know them. H.M. was profoundly amnesic. Although his long-term memory was intact (up to the point of surgery) H.M. could not form what kind of memory?

NEW Long Term Memory

The adapted (after the H.M. error) form of temporal lobectomy surgery for some cases of epilepsy required the removal of both Temporal Lobes. True of False?

False; Because of the "error" in the H.M. case, which was a medial bilateral temporal lobectomy, neurosurgeons now only remove one of the medial lobes (unilateral temporal lobectomy) vs. both lobes.

Define learning.

Learning is the process of acquiring new information.

Define memory.

Memory is created when something is learned, and this learning may occur either by a single exposure to information (Seeing a car crash), or by repetition of the information (using Quizlet Flashcards).

Learning and Memory can be subdivided into three major hypothetical stages. What are the 3 hypothetical stages?

Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

Encoding is the processing of incoming information to be stored and has two separate steps. What are those two steps?

Acquisition and Consolidation

What is Acquisition and Consolidation for memory encoding? Define Memory Encoding Acquisition and Define Memory Encoding Consolidation.

Acquisition registers inputs in sensory buffers and sensory analysis stages; Consolidation creates a stronger representation over time.

__________ is the result of acquisition and consolidation for memory and represents the permanent record of the information.

Storage of Memory

__________ utilizes stored information to create a conscious representation or to execute a learned behavior such as motor act.

Retrieval of memory

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