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eastern roman empire became known as this


this emperor banned the use of icons

leo III

ruler who converted Kiev to Christianity


this turkish group captured baghdad from the persians in 1055


most famous seljuk sultan

malik shah

famous kurdish captain who helped the muslims recover jerusalem in 1187


turkish military slaves


helped create the cyrillic alphabet

st. methodius

armies from this country moved into baghdad and ended power of he caliph in 945


people were noted for their military skills


time period between 500-1500

middle ages

language that could no longer be understood


2 things that the germanic people couldn't do that the romans had been able to do

read and write

france and switzerland were known as this


one thing that survived when the roman empire ended

the church

who were the southern europeans feared would attack


religious community for men


italian monk who wrote rules for monasteries


treaty that divided the corlingian land of charlemagne's empire among his grandsons

treaty of verdun

in feudalism, the land given by a lord in return for protection


lord's estate


stages battles for entertaining audiences and training knights


cometed against the kings for power?

popes, bishops

religion that charlemagne spread


germanic people from scandanavia


1st european to come to america

lief ericson

people who couldn't leave the land where they were born


age that one bagan training to become a knight


age that one became a full knight


elenor of aquitaine is famous for

becoming queen of england

who was the most effective ruler of medieval germany?

otto I

what pope banned lay investiture?

gregory VII

what is cannon law?

church law

what is so bad about excommunication?

if you weren't a member of the Church then you couldn't recieve the sacraments, which means you can't get into heaven.

What was an interdict?

priests couldn't come into an area therefore they couldn't recieve the sacraments in that area

english monk who wrote the best history of the middle ages

venerable bede

became the 1st mayor of the palace in 719. Charles the Hammer

Charles Martel

when the church gets involved with politics or other world matters


pope who crowned charlemagne "roman emperor" in exchange for him putting down an angry mob who were attacking the pope

leo III

group of people from hungary who invaded western europe


traveling poets


what do many historians call the time from 500-1000?

dark ages

why was the monastery at cluny in france important?

clean up the church; had problems

discuss the problems of the church

priests were illiterate, popes had questionable morals, priests had families

selling positions in the church


law of the church

canon law

What 2 popes enforced laws against bad practices in the Church?

Pope Leo IX, Gregory VII

What are thithes and what were they used for?

church taxes; helping the sick and poor; social services

how were friars alike and unalike from monks?

friars, beggers; monks took vow of poverty

who founded the dominicans and what did they stand for?

St. Dominic; importance of study

Who founded the Franciscans and what did they believe?

brothers and sisters. St. Francis

how did women's role in the church differ from men?

joined these groups and lived like monks/friars but couldn't travel from place to place

describe romeanesque architechture

round arch, heavy roof, thick walls/pillars

describe gothic architechture

not heavy walls, flying buttresses, high ceilings

holy war, reclaim promised land


besides religious, what 3 goals did the crusades have?

political, social, economic

what did pope urban II promise to those who fought in the crusades?

assured a place in Heaven

How ere the crusaders prepared for war?

they weren't- had no strategy

who won the 1st crusade?


most crusaders came from what country?


discuss the 2nd crusade-

recaptured adessa; jerusalem was lost

What 3 powerful monarchs led the 3rd crusade

philip II, frederick I, richard the lion hearted

what happened to frederick (barbarossa) and philip II?

frederick drowned, philip returned home

what 2 leaders ended up fighting?

richard and saladin

what happened with the 4th crusade?

saladin won jerusalem remained muslim; christians can visit

what happened to the children of the crusades?

1000s died crossing the alps

spanish muslims


drove out the muslims from spain


what was the last muslim kingdom in spain


who did granada fall to?

christian army of ferdinand and isabella

court held by the church to supress heresy


peoples whos beliefs differ from the church


who was suspected of heresy and what happened to them?

jewish and muslim converts questioned for weeks

what happened to europes food supply from 800-1100


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