eastern roman empire became known as this
this emperor banned the use of icons
ruler who converted Kiev to Christianity
this turkish group captured baghdad from the persians in 1055
most famous seljuk sultan
famous kurdish captain who helped the muslims recover jerusalem in 1187
turkish military slaves
helped create the cyrillic alphabet
armies from this country moved into baghdad and ended power of he caliph in 945
people were noted for their military skills
time period between 500-1500
language that could no longer be understood
2 things that the germanic people couldn't do that the romans had been able to do
read and write
france and switzerland were known as this
one thing that survived when the roman empire ended
who were the southern europeans feared would attack
religious community for men
italian monk who wrote rules for monasteries
treaty that divided the corlingian land of charlemagne's empire among his grandsons
treaty of verdun
in feudalism, the land given by a lord in return for protection
stages battles for entertaining audiences and training knights
cometed against the kings for power?
religion that charlemagne spread
germanic people from scandanavia
1st european to come to america
people who couldn't leave the land where they were born
age that one bagan training to become a knight
age that one became a full knight
elenor of aquitaine is famous for
becoming queen of england
who was the most effective ruler of medieval germany?
what pope banned lay investiture?
what is cannon law?
what is so bad about excommunication?
if you weren't a member of the Church then you couldn't recieve the sacraments, which means you can't get into heaven.
What was an interdict?
priests couldn't come into an area therefore they couldn't recieve the sacraments in that area
english monk who wrote the best history of the middle ages
became the 1st mayor of the palace in 719. Charles the Hammer
when the church gets involved with politics or other world matters
pope who crowned charlemagne "roman emperor" in exchange for him putting down an angry mob who were attacking the pope
group of people from hungary who invaded western europe
what do many historians call the time from 500-1000?
why was the monastery at cluny in france important?
clean up the church; had problems
discuss the problems of the church
priests were illiterate, popes had questionable morals, priests had families
selling positions in the church
law of the church
What 2 popes enforced laws against bad practices in the Church?
Pope Leo IX, Gregory VII
What are thithes and what were they used for?
church taxes; helping the sick and poor; social services
how were friars alike and unalike from monks?
friars, beggers; monks took vow of poverty
who founded the dominicans and what did they stand for?
St. Dominic; importance of study
Who founded the Franciscans and what did they believe?
brothers and sisters. St. Francis
how did women's role in the church differ from men?
joined these groups and lived like monks/friars but couldn't travel from place to place
describe romeanesque architechture
round arch, heavy roof, thick walls/pillars
describe gothic architechture
not heavy walls, flying buttresses, high ceilings
holy war, reclaim promised land
besides religious, what 3 goals did the crusades have?
political, social, economic
what did pope urban II promise to those who fought in the crusades?
assured a place in Heaven
How ere the crusaders prepared for war?
they weren't- had no strategy
who won the 1st crusade?
most crusaders came from what country?
discuss the 2nd crusade-
recaptured adessa; jerusalem was lost
What 3 powerful monarchs led the 3rd crusade
philip II, frederick I, richard the lion hearted
what happened to frederick (barbarossa) and philip II?
frederick drowned, philip returned home
what 2 leaders ended up fighting?
richard and saladin
what happened with the 4th crusade?
saladin won jerusalem remained muslim; christians can visit
what happened to the children of the crusades?
1000s died crossing the alps
drove out the muslims from spain
what was the last muslim kingdom in spain
who did granada fall to?
christian army of ferdinand and isabella
court held by the church to supress heresy
peoples whos beliefs differ from the church
who was suspected of heresy and what happened to them?
jewish and muslim converts questioned for weeks
what happened to europes food supply from 800-1100
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