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Arts and Humanities
Western Civ Chapter 7
Terms in this set (21)
What did Diocletian's reforms do to weaken control of the Roman Empire?
After the murder of the emperor Numerian by his praetorian prefect, Diocletian executed the prefect and was then hailed as emperor by his soldiers. He divided the empire into four administrative units, each with its own prefect.
What were some of the building accomplishments of Constantine? Where?
• New capital city in the east, on the site of the Greek city of Byzantium, on the shores of the Bosporus.
• Christian churches in Rome.
• Roads all over Rome.
What is the significance of Constantine's support of Christianity?
Christianity flourished after Constantine became the first Christian emperor. Before a crucial battle, he saw a vision of a Christian cross inscribed "In this sign you will conquer." Having won the battle, he was convinced of the power of the Christian God. He issued the famous Edict of Milan, officially tolerating the existence of Christianity.
How was the Christian church codified at the Council of Nicea?
It condemned Arianism and stated that Jesus was "of the same substance" as God. It did not end controversy, however, not only did Arianism persists in some parts of the Roman empire for many years, but many of the Germanic Goths who established states in the west converted to Arian Christianity.
What led to the dissolution of the western Roman empire?
After the death of Constantine, the empire resumed its dissolution into western and eastern parts.
Who are the Ostrogoths? The Visigoths?
• The Ostrogoths were people from Italy who managed to maintain the Roman tradition of government. They were governed by their own customs and their own officials.
• The Visigoths were people from Spain that demonstrated a number of parallels to the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy. Both favored coexistence between the Roman and German populations, both featured a warrior caste dominating larger native populations, and both continued to maintain much of the Roman structure of government while largely excluding Romans from power. This kingdom possessed one fatal weakness. With no established procedure for choosing new rulers, powerful Visigoths fought constantly to lay claim to their kingship.
What is significant about the Frankish Kingdom and the Merovingian kings?
The Frankish Kingdom was the only one of the German states on the European continent that proved to be the long-lasting-the kingdom of the Franks. It was established by Clovis, who was a member of the Merovingian dynasty who became a Catholic Christian around 500.
Where did the Anglo-Saxons originate?
Denmark and Northern Germany
How influential are the Popes of the church by the 5th century?
The Popes are very influential to the church by the 5th century, because they influenced monasticism.
How did monasticism affect the growth of Christianity?
Christian monasticism was initially based on the model of the solitary hermit who forsakes all civilized society to pursue spirituality.
What are the contributions of Monasticism?
The Bible and better educations.
How did Christianity support the growth of a "western" tradition?
Christianity supported the growth of a "western" tradition, by giving us the western cannon.
What was St. Augustine's contribution to the understandings about religion?
The work of Augustine provides one of the best examples of how Christianity used pagan culture in the service of Christianity. He came to be revered as one of the Latin fathers of the Catholic church, intellectuals who wrote in Latin and profoundly influenced the development of Christian thought in the west.
What was the contribution of Jerome?
Jerome pursued literary studies in Rome and became a master of Latin prose. He had mixed feelings about his love for Classical studies, however, and like Augustine, he experienced a spiritual conversion after which he tried to dedicate himself more fully to Jesus. Ultimately, he found a compromise by purifying the literature of the pagan world and then using it to further the Christian faith. He was able to translate the Old and New Testaments, because he knew how to speak Hebrew and Greek. Jerome also created the Latin Vulgate.
How did Cassiodorus help to preserve learning?
In assembling his compendium of authors, he followed the works of late ancient authors in placing all secular knowledge into categories of the seven liberal arts. which where divided into two major groups" the trivium, consisting of grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic or logic, and the quadrivium, which consisted of the mathematical subjects of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. The seven liberal arts would become the corner stone of Western education until the seventh century.
Who was Justinian and how did he contribute to our legal systems?
Justinian was the emperor of the eastern Roman Empire who was determined to reestablish the empire in the entire Mediterranean world. His most important contribution was his codification of Roman Law. The eastern empire had inherited a vast quantity of legal materials connected to the development of Roman Law, which Justinian wished to simplify. The result was the Corpus Iuris Civilis (Body of Civli Law).
How did Justinian's architectural efforts sustain western tradition?
He built them in a fashionable way.
What led to the fall of the Byzantine Empire?
The rise of Islam lead to the fall of the Byzantine Empire.
Who was Muhammad?
Muhammad was the prophet of the Islamic faith and the founder of Islam. He was a leader from Mecca who unified Arabia into a single religious polity under Islam. He was considered to be a messenger from God.
What does Islam profess?
Islam was a direct and simple faith, emphasizing the need to obey the will of Allah. Islam professed the Five Pillars of Islam.
How were Islamic armies so successful in overrunning most of the old Roman Empire?
The Islamic armies were so successful in overrunning most of the old Roman Empire, because they had Muhammad, who was a really good leader.
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