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63 terms

chemistry

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chemistry
the study of composition in structure, properties, and the properties of matter
atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of an element
mole
unit of measurment; 6.022*10^23
avagadro's number
1 mole
molar mass
mass of a mole
aufbau principle
place electrons from the lowest energy to the highest
pauli exclusion principle
each electron in an atom MUST have a unique set of quantum numbers
hunds rule
place 1 electron in each orbital of equal energy before you pair them.
octet rule
atoms will gain, lose, or share valence electrons to make a full octet
periodic law
the repeating patternof chemical and physical properties of elements. when the elements are arranged according to increasing atomic number
atomic radii
half the distance between nuclei of 2 atoms of the same element in the solid crystal state.
ist ionization energy
energy required to move an electron from 1 mole of neutral gassious atoms
electron affinity
the energy change when you add 1 mole of electrons to 1 mole of neutral atoms
electronegativity
the ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond
chemical bond
a mutual attraction between two atoms
ionic bond
when electrons are transferred
covalent bond
share e- (not always equally)
non-polar covalent
share electrons equally
polar covalent
dont share electrons equally
quantitative
observation with numbers
qualitative
observation without numbers
length
meter (m)
mass
kilogram (kg)
time
second (s)
volume
cL (m^3)
Density
g/mL
same number of electrons
why do elements in groups have similiar properties?
resonance
double bonds
physical change
solid, liquid, gas
chemical change
identity
chemical and physical changes
determined by changing the identity
metals
conduct electricity, luster, malleable, high melting point, ductile (left of staircase)
nonmetals
non luster, non malleable, not good conductors, not ductile (right of staircase)
metalloids
charactheristics like both metals and nonmetals. (along staircase)
conservation of mass
matter cant be created or destroyed; the mass of reactants is equal to the mass of the product
definite proportions
compound always has the same proportion by mass of its elements
principle quantum number
gives the energy level of electron
angular momentum
tells shape of orbital
shapes of orbitals
sphere, peanut, double peanut, flower
magnetic quantum number
tells the orientation of the orbital
spin quantum number
tells the spin of the electron (direction of spin)
density
=mass/volume
6.022*10^23
1 mole
6.626*10^-34 Js
plancks constant
energy
=hv
speed of light (c)
=lambda*nu
homogeneous
unifrom solution
heterogeneous
non uniform solution
pure substance
cant be separated physically
element (pure substance)
cant break smaller into substance
compound (pure substance)
can be broken down (chemically) -same identity -set definite compostition
pure substance
have the same properties and a constant composition
accuracy
how close it is to the correct value
precision
how close your answers are to each other
atomic number
the number of protons in an atom
isotopes
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
mass number
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
polarity
A relation between two opposite attributes or tendencies
hypothesis
a statement that can be tested experimentally
thomson
discovered the electron and the proton
chadwick
discovered the neutron
rutherford
discoverd the nucleus