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42 terms

H- Modern World Midterm: Chapter 17- Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

Natural Philosophy
science as a branch of philosophy... study of knowledge of the natural world
the man who developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
"Revolutions of Heavenly Orbs"
developed by Copernicus, this work said that the planets circulate in a circular motion
the scientist who formulated the experimental method and using this, came up with the law of inertia, among several discoveries related to the moon
the belief that the sun was the center of the solar system and that the earth rotated around it
the man who came up with three laws.. this astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
Experimental Method
a technique used to demonstrate cause and effect by purposely manipulating circumstances and measuring the final effect
Law of Inertia
the law that states rest is not objects natural state, objects continue in motion forever unless stoped by an outside force... discovered by Galileo
the man who wrote Principia in 1687... he made the three laws of mechanics and the law of gravity... he also invented calculus
Law of Universal Gravitation
the law that states that all objects in the universe are attracted to all other objects
the view that science flourishes through observation and experiment
Cartesian Dualism
the idea that reduces all things to mind and matter discovered by Descartes
Scientific community
a collection of people who share a system of rules and attitudes that sustain the process of producing scientific knowledge
the French philosopher who discovered analytical geometry he saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship... he reduced everything to mind and matter... he said "I think therefor I am"
the scientist who spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method
the idea that nothing should be accepted on faith
the idea that the goal is to create better societies and people by discarding old traditions
the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain
Tabula Rosa
the belief that the mind at birth was a blank slate... thought of by John Locke
the group of French "radicals" who focused on human reason and making critical changes in society
Separation of Powers
the principle of government whereby constitutional authority is shared by three separate branches of government... thought of by Montesquieu
the Enlighenment writer who believed in seperation of powers
"Spirit of Laws"
the laws written by Montesique talking about the seperation of powers and how government should be divided up into separate branches of government
the French diest who mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions... he wrote Candide and believed enlightened despotism was the best form of government
Adam Smith
the Scottish economist who wrote "The Wealth of Nations" and designed modern capitalism
the German philosopher who developed idealism and had a lot to do with Deism
the man who published the work of many philosphes in his "Encyclopedia"... he hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically
Reading Revolution
the transformation into a society where literacy was commonplace... people were not picky about what they read
the meeting places for philosophical discussion that were for the upper and middle class citizens during the enlightenment
Public Sphere
the area in social life where people can get together and freely discuss societal problems
the man who criticized Enlightenment ideas and believed that people were naturally good but civilized life corrupted them... he wrote the liked the idea of general will and wrote the "Social Contract"
Social Contract
grees to bethe idea that an entire society a governed by its general will
General Will
the reacting of the common interests of the people who have displaced the monarch as the holder of ultimate power
Enlightened Despots
an absolute ruler who used their power to bring about political and social change... they were very much influenced by the enlightenment
the monarchists who believed that they got their own power from God
Frederick the Great
the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose... he gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler
Maria Theresa
mother of Marie Antoinette... had to fight off Prussia as soon as she ascended to the throne
Joseph II
the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Seven Years War
the worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land... included the French and Indian War
Catherine the Great
the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
the book written by Newton which established the law of universal gravitation and banished Ptolemy's laws and universe for good
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation... the idea that God is a clockmaker