12 terms

AIDS

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AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency
-1981: in US a cluster of Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma discovered in young homosexual men
-1983: discovery of virus causing loss of immune function
Origin of AIDS
-crossed the species barrier into humans in Africa from chimps(SIV-simian) in 1908
-oldest know case patient died in 1959(congo)
-spread in Africa as a result of urbanization, and spread worldwide through modern transportation and unsafe sexual contact
-first known case in the western world: Norwegian sailor who died in 1976
Initial steps in HIV infection
1.attachment
2.fusion
3.entry
Stages of HIV Infection
-Phase 1: asymphotomatic or chronic lymphadenopathy (sweating of lymph nodes) no severe symptoms
-Phase 2: symptomatic; early indications of immune failure (serious symptoms) fever, diarrhea, yeast infections
-Phase 3: AIDS indicator conditions(HIV progressed to AIDS)
Diseases associated with AIDS
many diseases associated and viruses bacterias and protozoas can cause it
Survival with HIV infection
-exposed, but not infected: don't have receptors for virus entry, highly resistance to HIV infections
-long term survivors: low viral load, more effective CTLs
HIV Transmission
infected body fluids transmit HIV via:
-sexual contact, breast milk, transplacental infection of fetus, blood contained needles, organ transplants, artificial insemination, blood transfusions(unlikely because it is tested for it first) ( mostly blood and semen)
-not by insects or casual contact
AIDS worldwide
-heterosexual intercourse(85%)
-Women compromise 42% of infected
-injected drug use(IDU) dirty needles (in eastern Europe, central and southeast asia)
Preventing AIDS
-use of condoms, use of sterile needles(IDU), health care workers are universal precautions(have a greater risk): wear gloves, gowns, masks, and goggles
-risk of infection from infected needlestick injury is .3%(3 in 1000)
Vaccine Difficulties
-mutations
-antibody binding sites are hidden
-infected cells are not susceptible to CTLs
-proviruses
-latent virus
-attenuated viruses(too risky)
chemotherapy
-reverse transcriptase inhibitors(2 types) that targets reverse transcriptase of AIDS
-protease inhibitors: inhibits protease enzyme
-cell entry inhibitors(prevent entry)
-integrase inhibitors that inhibits the enzyme that the virus uses
-act on it until virus mutates and it is not effective anymore
HAART
highly active antiretroviral therapy
-combinations of the two types of reverse transcriptase inhibitors OR one of the types of reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitor
-it helps with virus mutations because viruses change and combining these would help with that
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