three types of symbiosis
organisms that live in and on the body
both members benefit
when a parasite benefits whie the host is harmed
when one member benefits while the other is relatively unaffected
the womb is an ___________, meaning free of microbes
the process by which pathogens attach to cells
study of the cause of a disease
1. suspect pathogen must be present in every case of the disease
2.pathogen must be isolated and grown in pure culture
3. cultured pathogen must cause the disease when introduced into a healthy host
4. same pathogen must be reisolated from the diseased host
the ability of a microorganism to cause a disease
the degree of pathogenicity is called
Endotoxin is also know as _______as is gram negative
the spread of pathogens via air, drinking water, and food as well as bodily fluids being handled outside the body
this involves the spread of pathogens to teh respiratory mucous membranes of a new host via an aerosol
Vectors that not only transmit pathogens but also serve as hosts for the multiplication of a pathogen during some stage of its life cycle
Vectors that are not required as hosts by the pathogens they transmit;such vectors only passively carry pathogens on their feet or other body parts
The study of the location, course, and transmission of diseases within population
three types of reservoirs
animal, human, nonliving
The mere presence of microbes in or on the body
when the organism evades bodys external defenses, multiplies and becomes established in the body
Four major pathways for portals of entry
skin, mucous membrane, pacenta, parenteral route
virulence factors that contribute to virulence
adhesion, biofilms, extracellular enzymes, toxins, antiphagocytic factors.
collangenase and hyaluronase
breaks down collagen
helps foreign object to enter blood stream
disolves cell membrane
Exotoxins classifications by locations
Exotoxins classifications by structure & function
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