Bio chapter 23
Terms in this set (60)
cell that makes up the dermal tissue, which is the outer covering of a plant
in angiosperms, xylem cell that forms part of a continuous tube through which water can move
Sieve tube element
phloem cell that is joined end-to-end to similar cells to form sieve tubes
phloem cell that surrounds sieve tube elements
type of ground-tissue cell with a thin cell wall and large central vacuole
type of ground tissue cell with a strong, flexible cell wall; helps support larger plants
type of ground-tissue cell with an extremely thick, rigid cell wall that makes ground tissue tough and strong
cluster of tissue that is responsible for continuing growth throughout a plant's lifetime
plant tissue found only in the tips of shoots and roots; responsible for plant growth
group of undifferentiated cells that divide to produce increased length of stems and roots
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
primary root found in some plants that grows longer and thicker than other roots
part of root system in which roots branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger that the rest
tiny projection from the outer surface, or epidermis, of a root
spongy layer of ground tissue just inside the epidermis of a root
central region of a root that includes the vascular tissue-xylem and phloem
tough structure that protects a root as it forces its way through the soil
waterproof strip that surrounds plant epidermal cells
point of a stem where a leaf is attached
region between nodes on plant stems
plant structure containing undeveloped tissue that can produce new stems and leaves
plant stem structure that contains xylem and phloem tissue
parenchyma cells inside the ring of vascular tissue in dicot stems
type of plant growth that occurs at the tips of roots and stems
pattern of plant growth in which stems increase in width
lateral meristematic tissue that produces vascular tissues and increases the thickness of the stem over time
lateral meristematic tissue that produces the outer covering of stems
older xylem near the center of a woody stem that no longer conducts water
area in plants that surrounds the heartwood and is active in fluid transport
tree structure that includes all tissues outside the vascular cambium, including phloem, the cork cambium, and cork
thin, flattened section of a plant leaf that collects sunlight
thin stalk by which a leaf blade is attached to a stem
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant's photosynthesis
layer of tall, column-shaped mesophyll cells just under the upper epidermis of a leaf
loose tissue beneath the palisade layer of a leaf
opening in the underside of a leaf that allows carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf
specialized cell in the epidermis of plants that controls the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
attraction between molecules of different substances; in plants, attraction between unlike molecules
tendency of water to rise in a thin tube
hypothesis that considers plants in terms of where they produce and use materials from photosynthesis
What are the 2 kinds of tissues in plants? Describe each
The two kinds of vascular tissue
in plants are xylem and phloem.
Xylem consists of tracheids and vessel
elements, and phloem consists of
sieve tube elements and companion
How would you tell the difference of a dicot stem and root?
. A dicot root has a vascular cylinder
at its center, surrounded by a
cortex of ground tissue. A dicot stem
has ground tissue in the center, surrounded
by a ring of vascular tissue
How are root hairs important to plants
The cell membranes of root hairs
contain active transport proteins,
which pump mineral ions from the
soil into the plant, a process that
leads to the movement of water into
the plant by osmosis. Root hairs
absorb most of the water taken in by
What is the function of the vascular cambium in the secondary growth of stems?
In the secondary growth of a
stem, the vascular cambium produces
vascular tissue and increases
the thickness of stems over time.
From what type of plant tissue does bark develop?
It develops the cork cambium
What are the 3 main functions of leaves?
The 3 main functions of
leaves are photosynthesis, transpiration,
and gas exchange.
What is the function of the epidermis and cuticle layers in a leaf? What is the function of the pore like openings in these layers?
The epidermis and cuticle layers
of dermal tissue that form the outer
covering of a plant prevent water
loss. The function of porelike openings
in these layers is to allow gas
exchange between the plant and the
What properties of water are important in its movement up a plant?
cohesion and adhesion, As a result of this combination of forces, water is able to rise by capillary action
What is the function of guard cells in regulating transpiration and wilting?
When the guard cells are filled
with water, the pressure within them
increases, and they swell. This causes
the stomata to open and transpiration
to occur. When the guard cells
lose water, the stomata close, preventing
water from leaving the leaf.
This in turn prevents wilting due to
excessive loss of water by the leaf
What are the functions of phloem?
Pump food down from the leaves
into the stems and roots for storage
and back again from the roots to
other parts of the plant when the
food is needed.
What are source cells and sink cells?
Source cells- located where
sugars are pumped into the phloem,
sink cells- located where
there is a low concentration of
When are the stomata usually open?
When there is light and if the plant has enough water
The layer of cells that encloses the vascular tissue in the central region of a root is the?
Minerals from the soil move into the roots by..?
Taproots are more common in...?
Explain the difference between primary growth and secondary growth
Primary growth is when the plant grows up and secondary growth is when the plant grows wider
Explain the difference between a simple and a compound leaf
A simple leaf has one blade and one petiole while a compound leaf has many blades and many petioles
The 3 most important nutrients a plant needs?
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