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Chem exam 2 material
Terms in this set (97)
fossil fuels; primarily coal
70% of the electricity in the US comes from burning what?
when sunlight was captured by green plants ages ago
how did fossil fuels begin?
when living organisms die and decay what process is reversed?
1.Heat coal & combust it
2.use heat released to boil water
3. steam is then directed at a steam turbine
4. as steam expands and cools rushes past turbine causing it to spin
5. turbine connected to coil of wire that rotates within a magnetic field
6. turning generates electric current
how do turbines work?
heat ; radom motion
all energy put into a system turns into what
high potential energy
molecules that have what make them good fuels?
the transformation of energy into heat
why cant you completely covert one type of energy into another?
on average power plants efficiency are about what percent?
cars and trucks internal combustion engines are about what percent?
it is increased
in newtons cradle what happens to the entropy?
high specific heats ,and high heat capacity
what makes water an exceptional coolant?
the breaking and forming of chemical bonds
what do chemical reactions involve?
energy is __________ to break bonds
energy is____ when making bonds
net effect of bond breaking & bond forming
what is the overall energy change associated with in a chemical reaction?
breaking bonds is_________________
making bonds is__________________
carbon; ancient plant material, & other substances present when plants were buried
coal is mainly made up of what? and where do the other elements come from
higher carbon content and less oxygen content
why is coal better than wood?
less energy released
the more oxygen in a fuel means?
underground mining, expensive, environmental harm, soot, production of CO2
what are some drawbacks of coal?
crude oil (petroleum)
the liquid that can gush out of oil wells
petroleum ranges from a _________________ color to a _________________ tarry liquid
the majority of a petroleum mixture is what?
1. temp in boiler goes up and compounds begin to vaporize
2. once vaporized compounds travel up to distillation tower
3. compounds then condensed to liquids at dif. heights in the tower due to a decrease in temp. with height
steps of distillation
1. drill into gas-bearing shall below surface
2. water & other substances injected under pressure to create cracks in which natural gas can flow
3. water contains fine sand that props open these cracks
steps of frackling
reforming and crackling
the processes used to obtain more gasoline of higher quality
performs an extremely well octane rating of 100
really bad octane rating of 0
the most common biofuel that has been used for years and contains cellulose
this biofuel damages our CO2 absorbers; and is in insufficient needs to meet our energy demands
biofuel that is the same as the alcohol you drink
biofuel used for fermenting the sugars & starches found in corn
automobiles can't run on straight ethanol but can run on
biofuel thats production has increased dramatically and made primarily from vegetable oil
soy, rapeseed, palm oil, waste cooking oil
triglucerides: fats & oils
components of biodiesel
triglycerides that are solid at room temp ex: butter or lard
triglycerides that are liquids ex: olive or soybean oil
ester functional group
two O atoms form what functional group?
cost of biodiesel production
having biodiesel as a byproduct lowers what?
competition, rights of farmers, environmental consequences
downfalls to Biodiesel
supplies jobs, family farms are better off, less CO2 emission
upsides to biodiesel
water that is safe enough to drink, cook, and bathe in
water that contains particulates from dirt, toxic metals, and bacteria
what percentage of our water if freshwater?
locked up in glaciers, ice caps, and snow fields
most of our freshwater is?
what percent of freshwater is found underground?
what percent of freshwater is accounted for in lakes, rivers, and wetlands?
percent of saltwater on earth
of the water withdrawn daily what percent comes from freshwater?
of the water withdrawn daily what percent is saltwater?
shape and polarity
what makes water such a great solvent?
the greater the electronegativity of an atom mean the more ______ the bond
what values do we use to estimate bond polarities?
when a dipole moment occurs the molecule is what?
the double helix of DNA is stabilized through what kind of bond?
why is waters boiling point much higher than other liquids?
because of waters negative & positive ends
why do compounds dissolve well in water?
when ions dissolve in an aqueous solution they become what?
like dissolves like
why does oil not mix with water?
substances are dissolved in it, some bad (arsenic) some good (calcium & magnesium)
why isnt water pure?
Clean water act
provides a foundation for reducing surface water pollution
safe drinking water act
ensure potable water to those who depend on community water supplies
physical, chemical, biological, radiological
what are the 4 groups that contaminates are classified into?
physical water contaminants
impact the physical appearance or other physical properties of water
chemical water contaminants
naturally occurring or man made; toxins produced by bacteria, human or animal drugs, nitrogen, salts, bleach
biological water contaminants
contaminants are organisms referred to microbes or microbiological contaminants ex: bacteria, viruses, parasites
radiological water contaminants
chemical elements with an unbalanced number of protons and neutrons
liver and kidney function and the nervous system
water contaminants interfere with
where water is taken from its source line a aquifier or lake and passed through a screen that physically removes items like weeds and sticks; aluminum sulfate & calcium hydroxide is then added
some cities use what to disinfect their water?
ozone serves a beneficial purpose and a lower concentration is need than what other water treatment method
cost, decomposes quickly, does not protect against possible contamination further in treatment process
drawbacks of ozone
acid that dissociates completely in aqueous solution
acid that dissociates only partially in aqueous solution
bases that dissociate completely in water
bases that only partially dissociates in water; do not contain hydroxide but mix with water to form it
what forms when an acid and base react with each other?s
acidic pH between 5-6
normal rain is slightly what
slightly basic about 8.2
seawater is slightly what
CO2, NO2, SO2
what gasses dissolve in water?
what pH does rain have to be to be considered acid rain?
oxides of nonmetals such as CO2, SO2, SO3 and NO2 that react with water to produce an acidic solution
carbonate ion, bicarbonate ion, carbonic acid
what 3 compounds play a role in maintaining ocean waters pH around 8.2?
what is present in ancient rocks/plants?
burning coal produces what and mixes with oxygen to form what?
SO3 is formed rapidly and reacts with water vapor in the atmosphere to produce what?
volcanoes steadily emit what?
oceans are a second natural source that produce
gasoline once ignited burns rapidly forming what?
what else besides gasoline forms NOx
what is formed during lightning strikes and forest fires?
healthy lakes have a pH of
if pH is lower than what fish and other aquatic life are affected
limestone slowly reacts with acid rain
why do lakes in the midwest have a high acid-neutralizing capacity?
surrounded by granite
lakes in new england have a low acid-neutralizing capacity because?
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