66 terms

Zoology Concepts Quiz

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taxonomy
"a system for naming and organizing things, especially plants and animals, into groups that share similar qualities"
species can share a trait for two reasons
"either the species are closely related and they have inherited the trait from their common ancestor, or the shared trait is an adaptation to similar evolutionary pressures."
Aristotle
system of classification with genera and species
Carolus Linnaeus
first to use binomials consistently
Binomials
used to name taxa at the species level
taxa
Any group or rank in a biological classification into which related organisms are classified.
Generic name
beginning with uppercase
Specific name
beginning with lowercase
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
Responsible for the scientific names of every animal
founded in 1895
domains
Bacteria/eubacteria
Archaea
Eukaryota
Carl Woese
Added archaea to the 3 domain system - 1977
1600s
"After relying on the authority of ancient writers like Aristotle and Galen for centuries, European naturalists began to look at life for themselves."
1700s
"The study of nature would reveal the Divine Order of God's creation, and it was the naturalist's task to construct a "natural classification" that would reveal this Order in the universe."
1800s
"...Gray's acceptance of uncertainty represented a growing trend among intellectuals of science and religion."
1900s-today
became more organized and become dictated by observable evidence.
Have We Discovered All the Species Yet?
As of 2010, approximately 1.7 million plant and animal species have been classified

Invertebrates and insects groups have the most unidentified species
How Do Scientists know This Information?
Estimations made using the concepts of species diversity and species richness

Taxonomy is used to make the estimations more precise
Species Richness
Count of various different species in a certain region, ecosystem, or area
Species Diversity
Number of different species in a certain region, ecosystem, or area
How Taxonomy Helps to Make Estimations
Taxonomic groups put similar species together

New species have increased but taxonomic groups haven't
Where Are All the Undiscovered Species?
Most species are hiding in plain sight and/or confused with others

Areas that cannot be reached
cladogram
a branching diagrammatic tree used in cladistic classification to illustrate phylogenetic relationships.
Cladistics
an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized based on shared derived characteristics that can be traced to a group's most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant ancestors.
Ancestral trait
trait all animals share
Derived characteristic
traits that set each animal apart
Why are cladograms important?
Cladistics is useful for creating systems of classification.

Cladistics predicts the properties of organisms.

Cladistics helps to clarify mechanisms of evolution.
How do we use cladograms to help us in our study of animals and ecosystems?
They show evolutionary relationships for organisms with a shared common ancestor.

Can look at trees that may have been derived from a common ancestor to arrange organisms on different branches.

Provides a simpler way of being able to classify animals/organisms and seeing how they change over time.
Germ layers
endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm

arise during gastrulation
animals with all three layers
triploblastic
coelenterates
have mesoglea which ensures that the endoderm and ectoderm remain attached
endoderm
most anterior layer

turns into the inner lining of some systems
ectoderm
most exterior layer

surface ectoderm: skin, hair, nails

neuroectoderm: both CNS and PNS; spinal cord+brain+eyes, neural tube+crest
mesoderm
middle layer

exclusive to animals with bilateral symmetry

gives rise to internal structures, sex organs

dorso-ventral pattern form and acts as a blueprint for internal organs that develop during organogenesis
protostome cleavage
Spiral: The planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo.

Determinate: The developmental fate of each embryonic cell is determined very early on.
deuterostome cleavage
Radial: The planes of cell division can be parallel with or perpendicular to the vertical axis of the embryo.

Indeterminate: If separated from each other, each cell produced by early cleavage divisions retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo.
protostome coelom formation
Schizocoelous: solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom
deuterostome coelom formation
Enterocoelous: folds of archenteron form coelom
Protostome blastopore
Blastopore = mouth
Second opening= anus
Deuterostome blastopore
Blastopore = anus
Second opening= mouth
Body Plan
The general structure of an animal, the arrangement of its organ systems, and the integrated functioning of its parts
Coelom
A fluid-filled body cavity that is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue

Typically found in multicellular organisms

Acts as a cushion for the internal organs of the organism

Allows organs to change shape as they grow and grow individually from each other
Acoelomate
an invertebrate that lacks a coelem
pseudocoelomate
invertebrates with a three-layered body that has a pseudocoelem betweent he endoderm and mesoderm.
coelemate
most complex of all body plans and can move more freely
asexual reproduction
One parent: reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism

Uniform Offspring:
Offspring inherit all of their DNA from one parent and they are genetically identical to each other and to their parent organism
Sexual Reproduction
The fusion of haploid gametes to form a zygote (diploid)

The female gamete, the egg, is a large, nonmotile cell

The male gamete, the sperm, is generally much smaller and moves with its flagella

Offspring from sexual reproduction vary genetically to their siblings, as well as both their parents
Parthenogenesis
reproduction from an ovum without fertilization, especially as a normal process in some invertebrates and lower plants.
Budding
a new organism is formed through mitosis and cell division on the body of its parent

The bud, or offspring is identical to the parent

The bud, when large enough, can break off the parent and live on it's on

Offspring may remain attached and form a colony.
Gemmules
a tough-coated dormant cluster of embryonic cells produced by a freshwater sponge for development in more favorable conditions.
Fragmentation
cloning in which an organism is split into fragments.
Regeneration
occurs when an offspring grows from a piece of its parent
Hermaphrodite
a person or animal having both male and female sex organs or other sexual characteristics, either abnormally or (in the case of some organisms) as the natural condition.

Simultaneous Hermaphrodite is an individual who is male and female at the same time

Sequential Hermaphrodite is an individual who may function as a male or a female at different times in life
In times of environmental stress, ________ reproduction is more beneficial
sexual
what are hybrids?
Cross breed

2 animals from different taxa, breeds, or species

Sterile

Mostly not beneficial within their respective niches as they may compete for same resources of both parents
frontal plane
Divides into upper and lower halves

Dorsal- backside or upper-half
Ventral - stomach or lower-half
sagittal plane
The Sagittal plane divides an organism into left and right

Medial vs Lateral:
Medial - Middle
Lateral - To the sides

Distal vs Proximal
Distal - further away
Proximal - closer
tranverse plane
The Transverse Plane divides a quadruped into front and back

Superior - Relates to top
Inferior - Relates to bottom
Anterior - Relating to the forward end
Posterior - Relating to the rear end
invertebrate
exoskeleton can regenerate over time

exist in small sixe

lack a spinal cord which makes them weak
vertebrate
advanced organ system

can grow
endoskeleton
support greater weight and grow with organism

outer covering protects organisms
exoskeleton
completely covers organisms body

can molt

can become heavy and rigid
galileo's square cube law
describes the relationship between the volume and the area as a shape's size increases or decreases.
larva
sexually immature and morphologically distinct from the adult; eventually undergoes metamorphosis
morphogenesis
changing body for life cycle
mammals
usually have juvenile stage
grade
a group of animal species with the same level of organizational complexity