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252 terms

HONORS HISTORY STUDY GUIDE

Nearly 3/4 of the overall study guide
STUDY
PLAY
Torah
the first five books of the old testament
purple people
Phoenicians
they used purple dye
why were the purple people called this name?
ancient stone
what does Paleolithic mean?
Nile
what is the longest river in the world?
Moses
recieved the Ten Commandments at Mount Sinai
Amenhotep
changed his name to Akhenaton
Judah in the north and Israel in the south
the the two kingdoms of Israel after their split in 900 B.C.
the time before written language
what is prehistory?
Hammurabi
babylonian king starting in 1792 B.C.; had a harsh law code of 282 laws
Menes
united Egypt into one kingdom in 3200 B.C.
Jean-Francois Champollion
decipherer of the Rosetta Stone
Book of the Dead
scrolls that served as a guide for the afterlife in ancient Egypt
Donald Johanson
discovered Lucy in 1974
Moses
led the Hebrews out of Egypt in the Exodus
Howard Carter
discovered King Tut's tomb
the Ten Commandments
held in the Ark of the Covenant
Buddhism
religion associated with the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path
Analects
collection of the teachings of Confucious
Silk Road
trade route from China to the Mediterranean Sea
selfish and untrustworthy
legalists believed that man was.....
Siddhartha Guatama (Buddha)
founder of Buddhism
northern India
location of the Ganges river
Liu Bang
founder of the Han dynasty
Mahayana
which is fancier; Theravada or Mahayanna Buddhism?
Laozi
founder of Daoism
pictographic, which became Sanskrit
name of the Indo-Aryan writing system
Dao De Jing
collection of the teachings of Laozi
civil service
Centralized system that runs day to day business of government
genealogy
Record of family history
Polis
A greek term for a city state which was developed around a central fortress
Agora
Marketplace in Greece
Oracles
Ancient Greeks believed that gods spoke through priests and priestesses
Aristocracies
Greek city states controlled by nobles
Democracy
Government in which people rule
Tyrants
Rulers who seized power by force but had the support of the people
Import
A good shipped in from another country
Export
A product sold to another country
Ethics
Study of what is good and bad
Rhetoric
Study of public speaking and debating
Pedagogue
A male slave who taught a boy manners in Ancient Greece
Golden Age
Era of cultural progress in Greece in the 400s B.C.
Philosophy
Study of basic questions of reality and human existence
Phalanx
Military formation composed of rows of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder with spears
Republic
Form of government in which voters elect people to run the government
Dictator
Absolute Ruler
Patrician
Powerful roman landowners who controlled society
Plebians
Farmers and workers who made up the majority of the Roman population
Triumvirate
Political alliance of three rulers
Rabbis
Religious scholars of Judaism
Bishops
Heads of the Catholic Church in major cities
Pope
Head of the Catholic Church, means father
Martyrs
Persons put to death for their beliefs
Inflation
Rise in prices by a decrease in the value of a medium exchange
Matrilinear
Tracing your ancestry through the mother's side
Potlatches
Ceremonial gatherings of Native Americans and Pacific Northwest
chinampas
Raised fields by Aztecs made from mud
quipu
Kind of knotted string string used as a memory aid by the Inca
Dowry
Goods brought into a relationship by the women
Icon
A picture of Jesus, Virgin Mary, or a saint
Heresy
Opinion that conflicts with official church beliefs
Excommunication
Official edict that bars a person from church membership
boyars
Nobles who advised the prince in Russia
Czar
Title take by Ivan the Terrible, Russian for Caesar
Jihad
Teaching of Islam to defend the faith
Hijrah
Migration of Muhammed and his followers in AD 622, marking the first year on the Muslim calendar
mosques
Muslim place of worship
Shogun
Chief military and governmental officer in Japan
Samurai
Japanese warrior hired for protection of lords
Seppuku
Form of ceremonial suicide by defeated or disloyal samurai
Daimyo
Powerful local lords in Japan
Bushido
Code of behavior for samurai
Sophocles
author of Oedipus Rex
Pesistratus
a tyrant in Athens between 546 B.C. and 527 B.C.
Phillip II of Macedon
father of Alexander the Great
the Trojan War
subject of the Iliad
Herodotus
father of history
Socrates
philosopher who drank hemlock to end his life after being convicted of corrupting Athenian youth
Heinrich Schleimann
German man who confirmed that the Trojan War was an actual event
Crete
island where Minoan civilization arose
Hellenic culture
describes the culture in Greece
Hellenistic culture
describes the culture that spread to other places from Greece
Pericles
man that helped Athens reach its peak; served from 461 B.C. to 429 B.C.
Thucydides
fair and accurate writer of History of the Peloponnesian War
Homer
blind poet and author of the Odyssey and the Iliad
Aristotle
author of Ethics and Poetics; founded a school called the Lyceum
hubris
excessive pride
Archimedes
Hellenistic scientist; calculated pi, explained how levers worked, invented a water screw, and developed a theory about water displacement
Hippocrtaes
father of medicine
Athens
state that formed the Delian League
Parthenon
temple in Athens built to honor Athena
Draco
wrote Athens's first law code
Odysseus's journey home from the Trojan War
subject of the Odyssey
Pythagoras
calculated a theorem to find the missing side of a right triangle
lover of wisdom
definition of philosopher
Mycenaeans
group that conquered Minoans around 1400 B.C.
Sparta
winner of the Peloponnesian War
Persia
group of people who helped Sparta win the Peloponnesian War
military
center of Spartan culture
Euclid
author of Elements
Democritus
developed atomic theory
Zeno
established the Stoic philosophy
Plato
author of the Republic; founded a school called the Academy
medieval
The period of western European history known as the Middle Ages
feudalism
Political system of local government based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services
manorialism
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land
fief
Grant of land given to a vassal from a lord
vassal
Person granted land from a lord in return for services
primogeniture
System of inheritance from father to eldest son for ownership or possession of land
serfs
Peasants who were bound to the land where they worked for a lord
chivalry
Code of conduct that dictated knights behavior toward others
canon law
The code of law in the Catholic Church
common law
Law based upon customs and judges decisions rather than upon written code
tithe
Church tax collected from Christians in early times that represnted one tenth of one's income
usury
Policy of charging high interest on loans
capital
Wealth that is earned, saved, or invested to make profits
vernacular languages
Everyday speech that varies from place to place
scholasticism
Medieval philosophy attempting to bring together faith and reason
humanists
People who specialize in studying the humanities, which includes grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric
indulgences
Paid pardons from punishment for sin
theocracy
Government ruled by religious leaders claiming God's authority
geocentric theory
Theory according to Ptolemy that the Earth is the center of the universe
heliocentric theory
Theory developed by Copernicus that the sun is the center of the universe
Jesus
man whose teachings is the basis for Christianity
Nero
Roman emperor who blamed Christians for a fire that ravaged Rome; played the fiddle while it burned
Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus
three members of the first triumvirate
Punic Wars
the name of the wars between Rome and the people of Carthage
Hannibal
Carthaginian leader in the second Punic War
Hadrian
Roman emperor who put down the last major Jewish revolt during Rome's reign in 135
reform for the public
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus are known for this
Pompeii
city buried in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
Augustus
Roman emperor at the time of Jesus Christ's birth
Attila the Hun
in 451, led an assault on Gaul
north of the Iberian peninsula
location of Gaul
France
present day name of Gaul
Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus
three members of the second triumvirate
Zealots
people that encouraged rebellion against Rome because they believed outside influences posed a danger to their religion
Circus Maximus
a very large and well-known racetrack in ancient Rome
the Roman Peace
translate Pax Romana
Edict of Milan
granted religious freedom to Christians in 312
Octavian
given name of Augstus, the first Roman emperor
the Five Good Emperors
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
Hadrian
built a wall in Britain to protect it from invasion
Latin
considered the mother of the romance languages
Gospels
the first four books of the New Testament
tariff
Import taxes on goods
subsidies
Government grants of money
guerrilla warfare
Military technique relying on swift raids by small bands of soldiers
junks
large Chinese ships
queue
Single braid characterized the hairstlye of Chinese men in the Qing dynasty
philogy
History of literature and language
free trade
Practice based on the belief that the government should not restrict or interfere with trade
extraterritoriality
Exemption of foreigners from the laws of the country in which they live or do business
divine right of kings
Belief that God chose kings to rule a nation
gentry
Landowners in England who had social positions but no titles
burgesses
Merchants and professional people from towns or cities
commonwealth
A republic
constitution
Document outlining the basic rights and laws that govern a nation
habeas corpus
Legal rights protecting individuals from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment
sea dogs
Adventurous group of sea captains from the late 1500's
popular sovereignty
Governmental principles based on just laws and on a government created by and subject to the will of the people
enlightened despot
System of government in which an absolute ruler rules according to the principles of Enlightenment(applying the scientific method)
philosophes
Thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment
legislative branch
Branch of government that makes laws
executive branch
Branch of government that is headed by the president and enforces laws
judicial branch
Branch of government that interprets and applies laws
federal system of government
System in which power is divided between a central government and individual states
1050 B.C.
Zhou dynasty established in China
1000 B.C. - 700 B.C.
the Homeric Age in ancient Greece (beginning and end)
776 B.C.
first Olympic Games held
753 B.C.
according to legend, founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus
562 B.C.
end of Nebuchadnezzar's reign
528 B.C.
Siddhartha Guatama becomes Buddha
509 B.C.
Roman republic founded
500 B.C. - 479 B.C.
Persian wars fought
469 B.C.
Socrates born
431 B.C. - 404 B.C.
Peloponnesian War fought (beginning and end)
323 B.C.
Alexander the Great dies
133 B.C.
Romans conquer Greece
60 B.C.
First Triumvirate forms
44 B.C.
Julius Caesar assassinated on March 14, ......
44 B.C.
Second Triumvirate forms
27 B.C - 180 A.D.
the Roman Peace (Pax Romana) occurs in Rome (beginning and end)
96 - 180
the Five Good Emperors rule Rome (beginning and end)
220
Han dynasty ends
476
last Roman emperor overthrown
550
Gupta rule ends in India
570
Muhammed born
632
Muhammed dies
814
Charlemagne dies
1096 - 1291
Crusades fought (beginning and end)
1215
Magna Carta signed
1271
Yuan dynasty founded in China
early 1300's
Mansa Musa rules Mali (I couldn't find an exact date; this is a period of time)
1309 - 1377
Babylonian Captivity takes place (beginning and end)
1337 - 1453
Hundred Years War fought (beginning and end)
1347 - 1351
Black Death sweeps through Europe (beginning and end)
1431
Joan of Arc burned at the stake
1440
Moctezuma I begins his rule of the Aztecs
1453
end of the Byzantine Empire
1455 - 1485
War of the Roses fought (beginning and end)
1485
Tudor dynasty founded in England (end of the War of the Roses)
1492
Reconquista completed
1517
Martin Luther posts the 95 Theses
1519 - 1522
first circumnavigation of the Earth (beginning and end)
1545 - 1563
Concil of Trent meets (beginning and end)
1555
Peace of Augsburg signed
1607
settlement of Jamestown established in English colonies
1620
Pilgrims land at Plymouth
1688
Glorious Revolution occurs
1692 - 1693
Salem witch hunt occurs (beginning and end)
1707
England and Scotland unite with the Act of Union
1740 - 1780
Maria Teresa rules Austria (beginning and end)
1762 - 1796
Catherine the Great rules Russia (beginning and end)
1770
Boston Massacre occurs
1755 - 1781
American Revolutionary War occurs (beginning and end)
1776
Adam Smith writes the Wealth of Nations
1776
the American colonies declare independence from England
1789
U.S. Constitution ratified
1796
the White Lotus Rebellion begins
1839 - 1842
Opium War takes place (beginning and end)
1867
Tokagawa shogun falls from power in Japan
Du Fu
What poet wrote "A Song of War Chariots"?
Kyoto
In 794, the Japanese built a capital named Heian-kyo which became what modern city?
No, the Koreans were overtake by the Chinese for much of history
Has Korea always been an independant nation, never ruled by other groups?
Golden Horde
What did the Europeans call the Mongol Invaders of the 1200s?
Sung dynasty
In 960, Zhao Kuangyin established what dynasty?
Thousands
Japan is made up of how many islands?
Cambodia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam
What modern nations make up Indochina?
Sui and it linked north and south China
During which dynasty was the Grand Canal built and what did it link?
Temujin
What was Genghis Khan's original name?
Universal Ruler
What does "Genghis Khan" mean?
1800's
Germany and Italy were politically unified in what century?(individually)
Monte Cassino
Where did Benadict establish a monastery?
400s to 1500s in which the classical age ended and began the modern world
Define "Middle Ages"
300 years
How long did Hugh Capet and the Capetians rule France?
Otto I
Who was the first Holy Roman emperor?
Henry II
What English king married Eleanor of Aquitaine?
King John
What king was forced to sign the Magna Carta?
Henry I
What English king set up the department of the exchequer?
Saint Augustine
Who wrote "City of God"?
Parliament
What was the name of France's representative body which was made up of three social classes called?
Treaty of Verdun
What treaty divided Charlemagne's empire amongst his grandsons?
1215
In what year was the king of England forced to sign the Magna Carta?
Henry II
What English king became an enemy of Thomas Becker over the issue of trying clergy in royal courts?
Aix-la-Chapelle
Where did Charlemagne establish his capital?
House of Lords and House of Commons
What are the two houses of England's Parliament?
Agreement that limited imperial power and gave popes tha power to name bishops but emperor could appoint bishops
What was the Concordat of Worms and what did it say?
Hastings in 1066
At what battle and in what year was Harold of Wessex defeated by Duke William of Normandy(William the Conqueror)?
Leo III in 800
When was Charlemagne crowned emperor of the Franks and who crowned him?
France and Germany
What is Gaul known as today?
Saint Patrick
What man is credited with bringing Christianity to Ireland in 432?