APUSH Cause and Effect (Chapt 1-22)

Cultivation of corn (maize)
The formation of large, sophisticated civilizations in Mexico and
Aztec legends of a returning god, Quetzalcoatl
Cortés relatively easy conquest of Tenochtitlán
The English victory over the Spanish Armada
Enabled England to gain control of the North Atlantic sea-lanes
The English government's persecution of Roman Catholics
Led Lord Baltimore to establish the Maryland colony
Puritan persecution of religious dissenters like Roger Williams
Led to the founding of Rhode Island as a haven for unorthodox faiths
The Glorious Revolution
Led to overthrow of Andros's Dominion of New England
King Philip's War
Ended New England Indians' attempts to halt white expansion
Poor white males' anger at their inability to acquire land or start families
Sparked Bacon's rebellion
The dramatic increase in colonial slave population after 1680s
Inspired passage of strict "slave codes"
American merchants' search for non-British markets
Was met by British attempts to restrict colonial trade, e.g., the Molasses Act
The Great Awakening
Stimulated a fervent, emotional style of religion, denominational divisions, and a greater sense of inter-colonial American identity
The summoning of the Albany Congress by the British
Represented the first major attempt at intercolonial unity
British issuance of the Proclamation of 1763
Heightened colonial anger and encouraged illegal
America's distance from Britain and the growth of colonial self-government
Led to gradual development of a colonial sense of independence years before the Revolution
The Boston Tea Party
Prompted passage of the Intolerable Acts, including the Boston Port Act
The Intolerable Acts
Prompted the summoning of the First Continental Congress
The Battle of Bunker Hill
Caused King George to proclaim the colonies in revolt and import Hessian troops to crush them
Jefferson's Declaration of Independence
Inspired universal awareness of the American Revolution as a fight for the belief that "all men are created equal"
The collapse of the North ministry and the Whig takeover of the British government
Caused the British to begin peace negotiations in Paris
The weakness of the Articles of Confederation
Nearly bankrupted the national government and invited assaults on American interest by foreign powers
Shays's Rebellion
Scared conservatives and made them determined to strengthen the central government against debtors
Antifederalist fears that the Constitution would destroy liberties
Made the federalist promise to add a bill of rights to the Constitution
Jay's Treaty
Aroused Jeffersonian Republican outrage at the Washington administration's pro-British policies
The XYZ Affair
Caused an undeclared war with France
Jefferson's moderation and continuation of many Federalist policies
Created stability and continuity in the transition of power form one party to another
Adams's appointment of "midnight judges"
Aroused Jeffersonian hostility of the Federalist judiciary and led to repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801
Marshall's ruling in Marbury v. Madison
Established the principle of "judicial review of laws by the Supreme Court
The Barbary pirates' attacks on American shipping
Forced a reluctant Jefferson to send the U.S. Navy into military action
France's acquisition of Louisiana from Spain
Made Americans eager to purchased New Orleans in order to protect their Mississippi River shipping
Napoleon's foreign troubles with Britain and Santo Domingo
Led to a surprise offer to sell Louisiana to the United States for $15 million
The Louisiana Purchase
Provoked Federalists to charge Jefferson with unconstitutional expansionism
British impressment of American sailors and anger at American harboring of British deserters
Led to an aggressive and deadly assault on the American ship Chesapeake
French compliance with Macon's Bill No. 2
Forced Madison to declare a policy of nonimportation that accelerated the drift toward war
Western war hawks' fervor for acquiring Canada and removing resisting Indians
Caused Harrison's and Jackson's military ventures and contributed to the declaration of war in 1821
American lack of military preparation and poor strategy
Produced a series of badly failed attempts to conquer Canada
Oliver H. Perry's and Thomas Macdonough's naval successes
Reversed a string of American defeats and prevented a British-Canadian invasion from the north
Tsar Alexander I's mediation proposal
Eventually led to the beginnings of peace negotiations at Ghent
The Hartford Convention
Contributed to the death of the Federalist Party and the impression that New Englanders were disloyal
Canadians' successful defense of their homeland in the War of 1812
Inspired a new sense of Canadian nationalism
The Rush-Bagot agreement
Reduced armaments along the border between the United States and Canada and laid the groundwork for "the longest unfortified boundary in the world"
The rising nationalistic economic spirit after the War of 1812
Inspired a new Band of the United Sates and the protectionist Tariff of 1816
The disappearance of the Federalists and President Monroe's appeals to New England
Created a temporary one-party system and an "Era of Good Feelings"
Overspeculation in western lands
Caused the economy to collapse in the panic of 1819
Cheap land and increasing westward migration
Fueled demands in Congress for transportation improvements and the removal of the Native Americans
The deadlock between North and South over the future of slavery in Missouri
Produced the Missouri Compromise, which admitted two sates and drew a line between slave and free territories
The Missouri Compromise
Aroused southern fears for the long-term future of slavery
John Marshall's Supreme Court rulings
Upheld the power of the federal government against the states
The rise of European reactionary powers and the loss of Spain's colonial empire
Aroused American and British fears of European intervention in Lain America
The Monroe Doctrine
Angered Britain and other European nations but had little effect in Latin America
The growth of American migration into northern Mexico
Laid the basis for a political conflict that resulted in Texas independence
The demand of many whites to acquire Indian land in Georgia and other states
Fueled the political pressures tat led Andrew Jackson to forcibly remove the Cherokees and others
The Anti-Masonic Party
Brought many evangelical Christians into politics and showed that others besides Jackson could stir up some popular feelings
The failure of any candidate to win and electoral majority in the four-way election of 1824
Threw the bitterly contested election into the U.S. House of Representatives
The alleged "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Clay for the presidency in 1824
Aroused popular anger and made Jackson's supporters determined to elect him in 1828
President Adam's strong nationalistic polices
Aroused the bitter opposition of westerners and southerners, who were increasingly sectionalist
The high New England-back Tariff of 1828
Provoked protests and threats of nullifation from Sotuh Carolina
Andrew Jackson's "war" against Nicholas Biddle and his policies
Got the government out of the Aemrican financial system
Jackson's belief that any ordinary American could hold government office
Laid the foundations for the spoils system that fuel ruled the new mass political parties
The Panic of 1837
Caused widespread human suffering and virtually guaranteed Martin Van Buren's defeat in 1840
The open, rough-and-tumble society of the American West
Made the Americans strongly individualistic and self-reliant
Natural population growth and increasing immigration from Ireland and Germany
Made the fast-growing United States the fourth most populous nation in the Western world
The poverty and Roman Catholic faith of most Irish immigrants
Aroused nativist hostility and occasional riots
Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin
Transformed southern agriculture and gave new life to slavery
The passage of general incorporation and limited-liability laws
Enable businesspeople to create more powerful and effective joint-stock capital ventures
The early efforts of labor unions to organize and strike
Aroused fierce opposition from businesspeople and guardians of the law
Improved western transportation and the new McCormick reaper
Encourage western farmers to specialize in cash-crop agricultural production for eastern and European markets
The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825
Opened the Great Lakes states to rapid economic growth and spurred the development of major cities
The development of a strong east-west rail network
Bound the two northern sections together across the mountains and tended to isolate in the South
The Second Great Awakening
Inspired a widespread spirit of evangelical reform in many areas of American life
The Mormon practice of polygamy
Aroused persecution from morally traditionalist Americans and delayed statehood for Utah
Women abolitionists' anger at being ignored by male reformers
Led to expanding the crusade for equals rights to include women
The women's rights movement
Aroused hostility and scorn in most of the male press and pulpit
Unrealistic expectations and conflict within perfectionist communes
Caused most utopian experiments to decline or collapse in a few years
The Knickerbocker and transcendentalist use of new American themes in their writing
Created the first literature genuinely native to America
Henry David Thoreau's theory of "civil disobedience"
Inspired later practitioners of nonviolence like Gandhi and King
Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass
Captured in one long poem the exuberant and optimistic spirit of popular American democracy
Herman Melville's and Edgar Allan Poe's concern with evil and suffering
Made their works little understood in their lifetimes by generally optimistic Americans
The Transcendentalist movement
Inspire writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller
Whitney's cotton gin and southern frontier expansion
Turned the South into a booming one-crop economy where "cotton was king"
Excessive soil cultivation and financial speculation
Created dangerous weaknesses beneath the surface prosperity of the southern cotton economy
Belief in white superiority and the hope of owning slaves
Kept poor, nonslaveholding whites committed to a system that actually harmed them
The selling of slaves at auctions
Often resulted in the cruel separation of black families
The slaves' love of freedom and hatred of their condition
Caused slaves to work slowly, steal from their masters, and frequently run away
The religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening
Stirred a fervent abolitionist commitment to fight the "sine" of slavery
Politically minded abolitionists like Frederick Douglass
Opposed Garrison and organized the Liberty party and the Free Soil party
Garrison's Liberator and Nat Turner's bloody slave rebellion
Aroused deep fears of rebellion and ended rational discussion of slavery in the South
White southern defenses of slavery as a "positive good"
Widened the moral and political gap between the white South and the rest of the Western world
The constant abolitionist agitation in the North
Made abolitionists personally unpopular but convinced many Northerners that slavery was a threat to American freedom
Tyler's refusal to carry out his own Whig party's policies
Split the Whigs and caused the entire cabinet except Webster to resign
Strong American hostility to Britain
Spared bitter feuds over Canadian rebels, the boundaries of Maine and Oregon, and other issues
British support for the Texas Republic
Increased American determination to annex Texas
Rapidly growing American settlement in Oregon
Strengthened American claims to the Columbia River country and made Britain more wiling to compromise
The upsurge of Manifest Destiny in the 1840s
Created widespread popular support for Polk's expansionist policies on Texas, Oregon, and California
Clay's unsuccessful attempts to straddle the Texas issue
Turned antislavery voters to the Liberty party and helped elect the expansionist Polk
Polk's frustration at Mexico's refusal to sell California
Helped lead to a controversial confrontation with Mexico along the Texas border
The overwhelming American military victory over Mexico
Enabled the United States to take vast territories in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The rapid Senate ratification of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Thwarted a growing movement calling for the United States to annex all of Mexico
The Wilmot Proviso
Heated up the slavery controversy between the North and South
The evasion of the slavery issue by Whigs and Democrats in 1848
Led to the formation of the new Free-Soil antislavery party
The California gold rush
Made the issue of slavery in the Mexican Cession areas more urgent
The Underground Railroad
Aroused southern demands for an effective fugitive-slave law
The Free Soil Party
Was the predecessor of the antislavery Republicans Party
The Compromise of 1850
Created a short-lived national mood of optimism and reconciliation
The Fugitive Slave Law
Aroused active northern resistance to legal enforcement and prompted attempts at nullification in Massachusetts
The Pierce administration's schemes to acquire Cuba
Fell apart after the leaking of the Ostend Manifesto
The Gadsden Purchase
Heightened competition between southern and northern railroad promoters over the choice of a transcontinental route
Stephen Douglas's indifference to slavery and desire for a northern railroad route
Led to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, without regard for the consequences
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Caused a tremendous northern protest and the birth of the Republican party
H. B. Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin
Persuaded millions of northerners and Europeans that slavery was evil and should be eliminated
The exercised of "popular sovereignty" in Kansas
Led to a "mini" prairie civil war between proslavery and antislavery factions
Buchanan's support for the proslavery Lecompton Constitution
Offended Senator Douglas and divided the Democratic party
The 1858 Illinois senate race
Made Lincoln a leading nation Republican figure and hurt Douglas's presidential chances
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry
Convinced southerners that the North generally supported murder and slave rebellion
The splitting of the Democratic party in 1860
Shattered one of the last links between the sections and almost guaranteed Lincoln's victory in 1860
The election of Lincoln as president
moved South Carolina to declare immediate secession from the Union
The "lame-duck" period and Buchanan's indecisiveness
Paralyzed the North while the southern secessionist movement gained momentum
Lincoln's rejection of the Crittenden Compromise
Ended the last hopes of a peaceable sectional settlement and an end to secession
South Carolina's assault on Fort Sumter
Unified the North and made it determined to preserve the Union by military force
Lincoln's first call for troops to suppress the "rebellion"
Caused four more Upper South states to secede and join the Confederacy
Lincoln's careful use of moral suasion, politics, and military force
Kept the Border States in the Union
The large Northern human-resources advantage
Enabled Northern generals to wear down Southern armies, even at the cost of many lives
The North's naval blockade and industrial superiority
Eventually gave the Union a crucial economic advantage over the most agricultural South
The British aristocracy's sympathy with the South
Led the British government toward actions that aided the Confederacy and angered the Union
Americans minister C. F. Adams's diplomacy
Deterred the British and French from recognizing and aiding the Confederacy
Grant's victory at Vicksburg
Split the South in two and opened the way for Sherman's invasion of Georgia (v)
The class-biased unfairness of the Civil War draft
Led to riots by underprivileged Northern whites, especially Irish-Americans
Lincoln's belief that the Civil War emergency required drastic action
Led to temporary infringements on civil liberties and Congress's constitutional powers
Political dissent by Copperheads and jealous Republicans
Made it difficult for Lincoln to prosecute the war effectively
A series of Union military victories in late 1864
Ensured Lincoln's reelection and ended the South's last hope of achieving independence by political means
The assassination of Lincoln
Deprived the nation of experienced leadership during Reconstruction
Grant's Tennessee and Mississippi Rive Campaigns
Split the South in two and opened the way for Sherman's invasion of Georgia (tm)
The Battle of Bull Run
Led some Southerners to believe they would win an easy victory
The Battle of Antietam
Enabled Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation and blockaded British and French intervention
The Battle of Gettysburg
Ended the South's effort to win the war by aggressive invasion
Grant's final brutal campaign in Virginia
Forced Lee to surrender a Appomattox
The Emancipation Proclamation
Guaranteed that the South would fight to the end to try to save slavery
The growing Union manpower shortage in 1863
Helped lead to the enlistment of black fighting men in the Union Army
The South's military defeat in the Civil War
Destroyed the southern economy but strengthened Southern hatred of "Yankees"
The Freedmen's Bureau
Successfully educated former slaves but failed to provide much other assistance to them
The Black Codes of 1865
Imposed slavery like restrictions on blacks and angered the North
The election of ex-Confederates to Congress in 1865
Prompted Republicans to refuse to seat Southern delegations in Congress
Johnson's "swing around the circle" in the election of 1866
Weakened support for mild Reconstruction policies and helped elect overwhelming Republican majorities to Congress
Military Reconstruction and the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
Forced all the Southern states to establish governments that upheld black voting and other civil rights
The "radical" Southern state Reconstruction governments
Engaged in some corruption but also enacted many valuable social reforms
The Ku Klux Klan
Intimidated black voters and tried to keep blacks "in their place"
The radical Republicans' hatred of Johnson
Provoked a politically motivated trail to remove the president from office
The whole Reconstruction era
Embittered white Southerners while doing little to really help blacks