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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (29)
1. From what two ancient Greek words does our word "philosophy" derive? What do those
two words mean (or, what does "philosophy" mean)?
phylos-to love. sophie-wisdom
2. What is wisdom? How does wisdom differ from other kinds of knowledge?
Is knowledge gained by experience in life. Knowledge of what is good and right. It differs in that knowledge is facts and ideas; wisdom is the ability to judge the aspects of knowledge that are true and right
3. Explain one way that philosophy and religion are similar. Explain one way in which
philosophy and religion (may) differ.
Religion and philosophy deal with deep questions humans ask. How should I live? Why am I here?
They differ in their conclusion. Religion claims definite answers. Philosophy continues to inquire to the validity of religion's conclusion.
4. In what three ways does Bailey claim that philosophy may be characterized?
As an attitude-being open and inquiring. As a method-through clarification and argumentation. Philosophy as a subject matter-questions of the individual, things that have answers but not settled on, answers but can't be decided by faith or science.
5. What is the main difference between deductive arguments and inductive arguments?
deductive moves from a generalized principle known to be true, to a true specific conclusion. Inductive is opposite; from specific instances to generalized principle
6. What makes a deductive argument valid? What makes a deductive argument sound?
True premises=true conclusion; "truth preserving."
When an argument is truth preserving.
7. Explain modus ponens.
A rule for inference. 1) If A then B. 2) A 3) Therefore B
8. Explain how either inductive generalizations or arguments from analogy operate.
taking two items, and because of their similarity purporting that some other unknown property must be shared between them
9. What do abductive arguments try to demonstrate? How do they do that?
to show because one explanation is better than others, it must be more likely to be correct.
finding the simplest and logical explanation based on correct observations of the day.
10. What is a reductio ad absurdum? What does it try to show? How does it try to show
reduction to absurdity/refutes the argument by showing it leads to absurdity.
Whether the conclusion really follows the premise or whether the conclusion is really absurd.
attacks the person not the argument
attacks a different weaker version of the argument
argument from ignorance
asserts that a proposition is true because it has not yet been proved false
1) Reconstruct Anselm's Ontological Argument for the existence of God.
1) God is a being that nothing greater can be conceived
2) I can conceive such a being
3) It's greater to exist in reality than merely in the mind
4) Therefore God must exist in reality
2) In what way can someone deny the existence of God, according to Anselm?
That they don't understand such a being
3) Explain Guanilo's Lost Island Objection against Anselm.
Using Anslem's format of debate for the existence of God, but uses an analogy with a lost island. He tries to deduct the argument to absurdity.
In what way does he believe
someone cannot deny the existence of God?
Anyone who can think of something like God, is then led to know he must also exist in reality (the person can think of the thought, therefore God exists).
4) What is Philo's argument in favour of mysticism?
1) our ideas reach no further than our experience. 2) We have no experience with divine attributes 3) Thus, we have no ideas about God's properties.
5) What is Cleanthes's teleological argument (the argument from design)? What does Cleanthes's think the
argument shows about the nature of God?
that we can come to know about God by reasoning from the evidence afforded us by nature
the complex order and beauty of our universe can only be explained by positing the existence of an intelligent designer, that is, God. The argument is supposed to work by way of analogy-the world is like a complex machine.
6) Philo objects that Cleanthes's argument from design rests on a weak analogy. What are two of the ways
Philo thinks the analogy is weak?
Due to dissimilarity- a whole need not be similar to its parts.
A complete product may not resemble its earlier state.
7) Philo objects to Cleanthes's argument from design that appealing to God's mind as source of
organization for matter is unsatisfying. Explain his objection.
If God ordered the matter of the world what ordered God's mind? And what ordered that; ad infinitum. <---this is answer
We face a dichotomy either every phenomenon has a cause, therefore God's mind having a cause. Or there doesn't have to be a cause and things originate from spontaneity.
What is Anselm's response to the objection?
The analogy sucks, and isn't similar enough.
8) Philo argues that Cleanthes's argument from design (which rests on the principle "like effects prove like
causes") can lead to some troubling consequences concerning what the argument can reasonably show
about God. Explain two of these consequences.
All living creatures procreate, so the argument
gives us reason to believe that gods procreate as
We have no reason to think that God is perfect
• It appears that the universe is imperfect
9) Explain Philo's objection from vegetation/generation to the argument from design.
Seeing the there is a discrepancy of God having ordered the world because his mind itself would need a cause to be ordered-spontaneity is the best suitor. Spontaneity reflects best in its progenitors-animals and vegetation (coming in and out with no purpose).
This is preferable to claiming reason created the universe,
as we observe generation producing reason, but we never
see reason produce generation
10) Explain Philo's creation by chance objection to the argument from design.
• If we assume that matter is finite, and time infinite, then
over the great expanse of time the current universe would
have come into existence from pure chance
• Not only is that possible, but it is possible that it has
happened innumerable times before and will happen
innumerable times again
11) What is the cosmological (first cause) argument, as articulated by Demea?
Whatever exists must have a cause or reason of its
existence; it being absolutely impossible for any thing to
produce itself, or be the cause of its own existence. In
mounting up, therefore, from effects to causes, we must
either go on in tracing up an infinite succession, without
any ultimate cause at all; or must at last have recourse to
some ultimate cause, that is necessarily existent
12) What is Cleanthes's objection concerning necessary existence against the cosmological argument? What
does he think results from this objection?
13) Explain Cleanthes's objection against seeking a cause for an eternal succession (i.e. infinite causal chain).
It is absurd that something exists prior in time to an infinite
causal chain, because an infinite causal chain is eternal
Therefore, an infinite causal chain has no cause
14) Explain Cleanthes's objection to Demea's treatment of an infinite causal chain as an effect.
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