History and Theory Midterm
Terms in this set (51)
Why can psychologists claim that psychology is one of the oldest scholarly disciplines as well as one of the newest?
- Roots trace back to the 5th century BCE, but the field itself of modern experimental psychology was founded in 1879
- philosophy - subject matter
- physiology - experimental methods
Describe the differences between personalistic and naturalistic conceptions of scientific history. Which approach is supported by cases of simultaneous discovery? How could the contributions of Darwin be used to illustrate both?
- naturalistic - multiple moments, ahead of time. this approach emphasizes the forces of history that influence individuals. History is moved by forces beyond the control of individuals. "people are history's slaves" SUPPORTED BY CASES OF SIMULTANEOUS DISCOVERY, "multiple moments"
- personalistic - important events in history result from the heroic (or evil) actions of individuals. w/o these individuals history would be vastly different , their actions provide "turning points"
Darwin's grandfather had similar discoveries to Darwin but was before his time and thus did not become popular from these ideas. He had discovered something culture was not ready for.
Distinguish between internal and external histories. Use the example of cognitive psychology that we discussed in class to help explain the difference.
- Internal - history of psychology written by psychologist. what is written occurs entirely within the discipline of psychology. gives us insight into a detailed development of a theory or research program over time, this neglects outside forces.
- external - considers outside influences on a history.
- cognitive psych relation - internal (rise of cognitive psych in USA related to decline of behaviorism, behaviorism became inadequate). External (rise of cognitive psych paralleled with computer science, comparison of computer to brain, processing information similarly ~ output).
What is presentist thinking? Why is it dangerous to examine history using this perspective?
- to interpret/assess the past ONLY in terms of present understanding.
- dangerous because misleads us into thinking that individuals in the past should have known better and that they should have foreseen what was coming.
Explain the concept of mechanism. How did it come to be applied to human beings?
- Descartes - the body operates like a complicated machine. came to be applied to humans because of mechanical life like figures that were displayed like the ones we watched the video of.
How did Descartes distinguish between innate ideas and derived ideas?
- innate - result from our native ability to reason. examples include; god, the self, some basic math truths.
- derived - concepts that result from our experiences. ex; knowing how long a candle of a certain size will burn for.
In Descartes's model of the nervous system, how did the mind and body interact? Why did he choose the pineal gland as the point of interaction? What the flaw in his logic of using a part of the brain as the point of communication between the mind and the body?
- mind and body interacted via thin wire 'filaments,' were viewed as separate entities (dualism). He took the interactionist perspective, meaning that the mind influences the body AND the body influences the mind. He thought the mind was responsible only for thought and all else was done by body.
- He chose the pineal gland as the point of interaction because he thought it was strategically located in a place were the flow of animal spirits could be controlled, also because there is only one (not one on each side of brain).
- the flaw in logic is that he didn't actually explain anything!
Distinguish between primary and secondary qualities of matter, and compare the views of Locke and Berkeley with regard to these qualities.
- primary - OBJECTIVE, exist as an inherent property of an object. extension, shape, motion.
- secondary - SUBJECTIVE, not inherent attributes but instead depend on perception. color, smell, warmth, taste.
- similar in that - both empiricist views
- differ in that - Berkeley denied Locke's distinction betweet primary and secondary, thought that all qualities were secondary.
How did Berkeley's subjective idealism attack the concept of mechanism?
- subjective idealism according to Berkeley - belief that we can never know for sure the nature of the physical world, we can only know what we have experienced.
- attack because - the whole concept of mechanism is that everything can be studied and explained in a mechanical way but through subject idealism, our own knowledge an perceptions of how the mind works could be flawed based off of our own experience.
What are Hume's laws of association? How do they compare to Hartley's ideas about association? Whose ideas about cause and effect are more relevant for modern psychology and why?
- laws of association - resemblance, contiguity, and cause-effect. HUME MORE RELEVANT FOR MODERN PSYCH (bc searching for causes of behavior, multiple factors contribute to behaviors, finding these factors lets us somewhat predict behaviors).
- Hartley on association - contiguity (the experiencing of events together) and repetition are important.
What were the essential properties of phrenology? Why did it eventually fail as a science? (Make sure you can identify which scientists were affiliated with the phrenology movement.)
- essentially first theory of localization, believed that distinct "faculties" could be identified and located in defined areas of the brain, feeling skull for bumps that were then associated with traits.
- failed because - relied heavily on anecdotal evidence (sought out cases that fit their beliefs, discounted cases that did not). too vague to be falsified. shape of skull DOES NOT equal shape of brain.
- Gall and Spurzheim
What is the method of ablation/extirpation? How did Flourens use it to assess phrenology?
- ablation - surgically damaging areas of the brain and then observing the effects in order to see what part of the brain is responsible for what action.
- used to assess phrenology - damaged parts of brain and observed changes, did not match up to what phrenology claimed. functions were not as phrenology claimed they were.
Explain the relevance of Broca's findings for psychology.
- Patient "Tan" could not communicate via words but could think and was intelligent.
- studied Tan's brain and found MOTOR APHASIA, showed at least partial localization of speech function in cortex.
What is the trichromatic theory of color vision? (Also known as the Young-Helmholtz theory.)
- shined red green & blue lights on wall. found that it could create any color ~ concluded that eye must contain three different types of color receptors (one for each color).
What are the three psychophysical methods used by Fechner?
1 - Method of limits - stimulus is presented that is well above threshold and then gradually reduced in intensity until the subject reports it can no longer be heard.
2 - Method of constant stimuli - sounds of varying intensities are presented in a random order and the subject's task is to indicate whether or not they are heard.
3 - Method of adjustment - subject directly varies the intensity of the stimulus until it seems to be at threshold. ascending and descending trials can be used.
Why did experimental psychology emerge in Germany and not somewhere else?
-Academic freedom in German universities, no political or administrative restrictions. Students could attend multiple universities and didn't follow a degree plan as we do now. Were not controlled by church, more freedom.
-Many universities in Germany = more opportunities to study
-Scientists in England supported themselves
-No research universities in US until 1876
-Defined science more broadly than rest of Europe
Why is Wundt considered the founder of modern experimental psychology and not Fechner?
- both practiced experimental psych but WUNDT PROMOTED the new field. First to proclaim that his accomplishments were breaking new ground.
Wundt's concept of psychology involved two major programs. Describe each of them.
- the examination of immediate conscious experience using the experimental methods of the laboratory - presented stimuli to participants who described these very simply in terms of size, intensity, duration.
- the study of higher mental processes using non laboratory methods - used observational techniques, cross cultural comparisons, historical analyses, case studies. studied topics such as psycholinguistics, religion and myths, social psych, forensic psych.
How was Wundt's psychology influenced by the work of German physiologists and British empiricists? Your answer should include discussion of the concepts of voluntarism and apperception.
- Wundt used the techniques of these physiologists and empiricists as a means for scientific investigation.
- voluntarism - idea that a unitary force, will, is responsible for synthesizing the basic elements of consciousness in choosing what is attended to or understood
- apperception - the process of creating the whole of consciousness out of its parts.
How did Wundt define and differentiate between mediate and immediate experience?
- mediate is looking out a window and reading the thermometer to know the temperature.
- immediate is going outside without a coat and directly experiencing how cold the temperature is.
Describe Ebbinghaus' method for studying forgetting.
- created nonsense syllables as material to be learned (wouldn't be able to form associations between them). compares speed of memorizing syllables to memorizing material with content.
- measures length of time to learn based on length of material. FORGETTING CURVE.
What did Kulpe mean by systematic experimental introspection? How was his approach different from Wundt's? Be able to identify the major problem with introspection and the three solutions proposed by Titchener (based on Kulpe)'s version.
- form of introspection associated with Kulpe and Titchener, in which the experience of complex mental events was followed by detailed introspective descriptions;
- a more elaborate form of introspection than Wundt's
- Kulpe defined systematic experimental introspection as the experience of complex mental events followed by detailed introspective descriptions, it was more elaborate than Wundt's. In Kulpe's lab, observers would experience more complicated events than in Wundt's laboratory and then give a full description of the mental processes involved.
- Titchener believed that it is impossible to have a conscious experience and reflect on it at the same time. He suggested three solutions:
1. To rely on memory, delaying the introspection "until the process to be described has run its course, and then to call it back and describe it from memory"
2. Break the experience into stages, using fractionation method associated with Kulpe's laboratory
3. Acquire what he called the introspective habit
Describe the imageless thought controversy. How is this a good example of the problems with introspection?
- (Titchener and Wundt) a close analysis of thought processes reveals that the essential element in all thinking is an image of some form. THIS ISN'T TRUE - many thoughts occur automatically and without images.
- finding of the Wurzburg lab
- raised questions about the validity of introspection -> leads to paving way for behaviorism
Why is it so important that Titchener was the translator of Wundt's work into English? What were the lasting implications of this?
- He was able to bring Wundt's psychology to America but only the parts he AGREED WITH. (selective)
Why did Titchener exclude the study of children, animals, and the insane from his definition of psychology?
- he used the technique of introspective habit, meaning that those participating in his experiments were highly trained to behave in such a way that would make biasing influences disappear.
- Could only use motivated adult observers
According to Titchener, which aspect of perception should psychology be studying? You should be able to reference some of the work by British empiricists in your answer.
- Structuralism - identify basic elements of human mins; you have to study structure before you can study anything else about the mind, main purpose is to analyze the mind.
What is the stimulus error? Give an example.
- Titchener had very strict guidelines for the reporting of an introspective analysis. The subject would be presented with an object, such as a pencil. The subject would then report the characteristics of that pencil (color, length, etc.). The subject would be instructed not to report the name of the object (pencil) because that did not describe the raw data of what the subject was experiencing.
- confusing the mental process of study with the stimulus or object being observed (aka your interpretation of the object).
Titchener's behavior toward women in Psychology was contradictory, in that he sometimes supported and sometimes impeded their professional growth. Be able to discuss this contradiction using examples.
- Created the Experimentalists - Informal "club" of experimental psychologists ONLY MEN ALLOWED (gentlemanly conduct, smoking, thought women were too emotional)
- but also - 26 of 60 graduate students were women & First graduate student was also first female to earn PhD - Margaret Floy Washburn
What are the main criticisms of structuralism?
- Could only use motivated adult observers
- Not interested in individual differences
- Not interested in applied psychology - this is part of why structuralism doesn't last in America
- Being "highly trained" led to bias in observers
- shortcomings of introspection as a method
What is the importance of Darwin's theory of natural selection for psychology? How did his theory change the subject matter and methodology of the field?
- Darwin did not specifically discuss humans in Origin of Species but implications were clear, upsetting to church.
Summarize Galton's contributions to psychology. Describe five examples of his influence that are familiar in contemporary psychology.
- every person has unique fingerprints, his technique was used by Scotland yard.
- created first systematic weather maps
- wrote popular travel guide
- used Darwin's theory of natural selection and applied it to human mental capacities.
- Used stats to support his theories about mental traits, showed that they followed a normal curve
- first person to use survey method and twin studies
- pioneer in individual differences in human ability; made observatiosn about mental imagery and associations.
- created word association method
- UGLY SIDE - created eugenics -> led to sterilization in US
What is the connection between Galton's beliefs about intelligence and eugenics? What is the connection between his beliefs about intelligence and mental testing?
- Galton believed intelligence was almost completely inherited (only a small part was based on environmental circumstances, generally irrelevant according to him). This led to the practice of eugenics meaning that "society should encourage only 'high quality' people to reproduce" in order to produce 'higher quality' later generations.
- Was first person to use survey method
What were the major contributions of George Romanes and C. Lloyd Morgan to animal psychology and the development of functionalism?
- Romanes was the first to formalize animal intelligence testing. He develops the "mental ladder", which organizes animals by their mental function.
- Morgan did the first real study on animal behavior; and stated that animals are not going to carry around cognitive abilities that do not help with their survival.
- They were, "pivotal figures in the process from cute animal stories implying animal cognition to experimental research and a mechanical conception of animal behavior that eliminates the need for mental processes as explanations for behavior."
How did James's view of consciousness differ from Wundt's view? According to James, what is the best metaphor for consciousness? What did he believe to be the main functions of consciousness? Of habit?
- James argues that consciousness is not a set in interconnected units, that it was adaptable, personal and constantly changed as we go through life.
What is the James-Lange theory of emotion?
- emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events
Who is Mary Calkins? Why is she important in the history of psychology? What were her research and theoretical contributions to the field?
- First woman to be president of the APA
- completed dissertation at Harvard but was denied PHD (due to gender)
- discovered primary&recency effects, modality effects, effects of interference
- created self-psychology - though studying the self could reconcile functionalism and structuralism
Describe the variability hypothesis and its influence on the idea of male superiority. How did research by Helen Thompson Wooley and Leta Stetter Hollingworth challenge this idea?
- this is the idea that men had a greater degree of variability in most traits, compared to women and were therefore at a selective advantage in evolutionary terms
Describe Hall's recapitulation theory of development.
- The development of the individual mirrors the evolution of that individual's species.
What are Hall's major contributions to developmental and lifespan psychology?
What is the importance of Hall inviting Sigmund Freud to the anniversary of Clark University?
- Freud was grateful for the opportunity and considered it to be an important point in the history of psychoanalysis, constituting the first international recognition of his theories.
Describe the career and accomplishments of Francis Sumner.
- Francis Sumner is known as the Father of black psychology. He was the first African American to earn a PhD. He attended Lincoln University and graduated magna cum laude. Sumner then enrolled at Clark University to pursue a Bachelors of Arts in English. After he graduated from Clark, he returned to Lincoln as a graduate student and was mentored by Stanley Hall. He was approved as a PhD candidate, but couldn't begin his doctoral dissertation because he was drafted into the army during WW1. After he returned from WW1, he enrolled in the doctoral program at Lincoln and in 1920 his dissertation titled "Psychoanalysis of Freud and Adler" was accepted. Sumner was interested in understanding racial bias and supporting educational justice. He was also credited as one of the founders of the psychology department at Howard University, in 1928
What were the contributions to psychology from the Chicago school of functionalism? Be able to describe Angell's definition of functionalism.
- The contributions made were John Dewey's book Psychology, and his "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" where he argued that we can't reduce behavior or consciousness to elements. Dewey also created a psychology department to the University of Chicago, and the Laboratory School at the University as well. Angell's definition of functionalism, he described it in three ways: He claimed that it was psychology of mental operations, not the description of mental elements. He also said that it is the psychology of the utility of consciousness. And finally, it is psychophysics itself.
Describe three contributions Woodworth made to psychology.
- Wrote book 'Experimental Psychology' - this organizes research by topic and discusses procedures.
- contrasts experiments and correlations
- introduces the terms independent and dependent variable to psychology
- argued that experiments were the only way to know cause and effect.
- introduces the S-O-R (stimulus-organism-response) behavior formula
- developed interactionist model of nature vs nurture (meaning that both nature and nurture have roles in psychological development)
Compare functionalism's contributions to psychology with the contributions of structuralism.
Describe the economic forces that influenced the growth of applied psychology in America.
Describe the impact of World War I on the testing movement.
- Robert Yerkes - president of APA during WWI. Urged psychologist to aid in the war effort. Army needed to assess intelligence levels of new recruits. Yerkes took this need and created -> group intelligence test. Two tests - army alpha and army beta (for those who didn't speak english and/or were illiterate).
- These test were created for army use but went on to be used for school and jobs to assess students and potential workers for IQ/intelligence level.
Define the concepts of mental age and IQ. How are they calculated?
- Goddard on mental age
--- Age 1-2 = idiot
--- Age 3-7 = imbecile
--- Age 8-12 = moron
--- he also believed feeblemindedness was hereditary
- mental age - age at which average children can perform tqasks.
- IQ is calculated by taking mental age and dividing by chronological age and then multiplying by 100
- formula = (mental age/chronological age)x100
Compare, and contrast the approaches to mental and intelligence testing taken by Cattell and Binet.
Explain how Goddard demonstrated that Deborah's feeblemindedness was due to heredity and not her environment.
- She was considered to be part of a "bad stock." Her family was "notorious for the number of defectives and delinquents it had produces," this was traced back several generations to great-great-grandparents, great-great-grandmother was considered "feeble-minded." The side of the family related to this "feeble-minded" woman were found to be mostly (143/189 people) feeble-minded. The other side of the family had only 3 out of 496 who were feeble-minded. Goddard argued this difference must be due to heredity because the environments between the two groups were about the same.
Discuss Münsterberg's contributions to I/O psychology, psychotherapy, and forensic psychology.
- Forensic psych - published "On the Witness Stand"
--- discusses psychological factors that can affect the outcome of a trial.
--- Believed that witness testimony in courtroom could not be taken for granted because witnesses are prone to suggestions.
--- Also discussed false confessions, certain types of people would confess to a crime they did not commit.
- Industrial psychology, Münsterberg wrote a book called "Psychology & Industrial Efficiency."(1913) He thought that the key to workplace efficiency was matching jobs with workers' emotional and mental abilities. Successful matches led to satisfied employees, better quality work, and higher productivity.
- psychotherapy, Münsterberg wrote "Psychotherapy"(1909). In it, he stated that psychological processes had a parallel physical process in the brain. Mental illness had a physiological basis. He made these conclusions by making diagnoses based on behavioral observations, an interview, and answers received by the patients he interviewed
Describe the contributions of Walter Bingham and Lillian Gilbreth to applied psychology.