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a need or desire that energizes or directs behavior


a complex behavior that has a fixed pattern throughout a species and is unlearned

Drive-Redunction Theory

the idea that a psychological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need; the perspective on motivation that focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact


a tendency to remain a balance or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry; such as blood glucose, around a particular level; goal of drive reduction; example: tendencies to war heavier clothes when it's cold and lighter clothes when it's warm


a postitive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

Hierachy of Needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs taht must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological nees bcome active


the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger

Set Point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a loswered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight

Basal Metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

Sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and ersoultion

Refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another organsm

sexual disorder

A problem taht consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning


sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity


The most improtant of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additonal testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

Sexual orientation

An endruing sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)


A completely invovled, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills

Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplace

Personal psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

Organizational Psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology taht examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organziational change

Human Factors psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical enviroments can be made safe and easy to use

structered interviews

interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is reated on established scales

Achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard

Task Leadership

goal-oriented leadership that sets standars, oraganizes work, and focuses attention on goals

Instinct Theory

the perspective on motivation that focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors


according to Maslow's heirachy of needs, the need to live up to our unique and fullest potential


According to Maslow's hierachy of needs, the need for achievment, competence, and independence

Belonginness and love

according to Maslow's hierachy of needs, the need to avoid loneliness and separation

Arousal theory

the perspective on motivation that focuses on finding the right level of stimulation

Physiological needs

According to Maslow's hierachy of needs, the need to satisfy hunger and thirst


According to Maslow's hierachy of needs, the need to feel that the world is an organized and predictable place

Although instincts are not common to humans, which of the following can be considered an innate tendency for human infants:

rooting and sucking

When a physiological need, such as hunger, creates an aroused tension state, this:

drives the organism to reduce that need

Need is to _____________ as drive is to _____________.

food deprivation; hunger

Luca has been diagnosed with a tumor near the base of the brain and ultimately is affecting his hypothalamus. We know that:

Lucas will eat excessively and become overweight


a hunger-triggering hormone secreted by the hypothalamus

Taste preferences in humans are the result of:

Culture, environmental factors, body chemistry

Only _________ of sexually active male teens use condoms consistently.


The fraternal birth order effect refers to a factor associated with:

sexual orientation

Your father-in-law thinks that homosexual activity is a choice people make, not a result of genetics. To dissuade him of this erroneous belief, you might share which of the following research findings?

Researchers have been able to create female fruit flies that, during courtship, act lik males

unstructured interview

interviewers taht ask questions such as How organized are you? or How well do you handle stress

One shortcoming of the instinct theory of motivation is that it:

does not explain human behaviors; it simply names them.

A researcher at a university in Nevada claims to have discovered that humans have a "gambling instinct." Another researcher in Hawaii claims humans have found a "surfing instinct." What is wrong with these claims?

Instead of explaining behaviors, they are naming them.

Serena is only 1 hour old. Remarkably, when she feels anything touch her cheek, she starts rooting and, when she makes contact with a nipple, sucking. These behaviors are:


Luca has been diagnosed with a tumor near the base of the brain and ultimately is affecting his hypothalamus. We know that:

Luca will eat excessively and become very overweight.


hormone secreted by the pancreas to control blood glucose

When your blood glucose level drops, your ____________ increases


Seventeen-year-old Vanessa just found out she is pregnant. Which of the following likely contributed to her unplanned pregnancy?

alcohol use

In one survey, ______ percent of 12- to 17-year-old American girls who have had sex said they regretted it


Adults who were blind from birth, but who gained sight after surgery

were able to sense colors, able to distinguid figure from ground, not able to recognize objects by sight that were familiar by touch

Dr. Grimm has been hired as a consultant to determine the reasons for the loss of morale, absenteeism, low productivity, and increased work accidents. She is this type of psychologist:


basal metabolic rate

the rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest


a digestive tract hormone that sends "I'm not hungry" signals to the brain

unit bias

Wansink (2006, 2007) noted that even nutritional experts would eat more if given a large bowl of ice cream, and even more if given a large scoop with which to scoop the ice cream; this best illustrates this


an ideal form of stored energy


researcher that explains one reason we feel hungry is beacuse of stomach pangs

Carbohydrates helps:

to increase levels of serotonin, which can have calming effects

erectile dysfunction

Since 1998, viargra has been a highly successful treatment;

premature ejacualtion

having orgasms quickly

Willaim Masters and Virginia Johnson

observed muscle contractions all over the body during orgasm

excitment phase

during this phase, the genital areas become engorged with blood, a woman's vagina expands and secretes lubricant, and her breast and nipples may enlarge

orgasmic dysfunction

not being able to have an orgasm

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