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Ralph Waldo Emerson

wrote "The American Scholar" and "Self Reliance," said, "European stretches to Alleghenies; America lies beyond." Transcendentalist

Henry David Thoreau

wrote "Walden" and "Civil Disobedience"

John Humphrey Noyes

perfectionist, established Oneida community

Anna Lee

worshiped by the Shakers as the female reincarnation of God

Charles Fourier

French advocate of "Phalanxes"

Robert Owen

Scottish industrialist, founded New Harmony

Charles G. Finney

greatest revivalist of the Second Great Awakening

Horace Mann

"Father" of the public school movement

William H. McGuffey

author of the famous reader used by school children in the 19th century

Cessare Becarria

Italian who wrote for prison reform and against capital punishment

Dorothea Dix

argued for separate asylums for the mentally ill

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

for women's suffrage, refused to include "obey" in her marriage vows

Lucretia Mott

Quaker, helped organize the Seneca Falls convention

Joseph Smith

founder of the Mormons, killed by an angry mob

Brigham Young

led the Mormons to Utah

Alexis de Toqueville

wrote Democracy in America

North American Phalanx

best example of a successful Fourier Phalanx


followers of a Calvinistic Baptist minister who taught that the second coming of Christ would happen in 1844


taught that God had once been a man and that all men could be divine

The North (of the U.S.)

% of the school children in this area about 70%

The South (of the U.S.)

% of the school children in this area about 33%

Auburn, NY

first of the penitentiaries or criminal asylums in 1821

Worcester, MA

first of the new mental asylums, established in 1833

Maine Law of 1851

forbade sale of alcohol

Seneca Falls, NY

site of the first women's rights conventions

Sara Josepha Hale

female editor of Godey's Lady Book

Thomas H. Gallaudet

opened the first school for pupils with hearing impediments

solitary confinement

believed to contribute to moral regeneration of the inmate

William Ellery Channing

influential Unitarian minister

Thomas Hart Benton

Missouri senator, expansionist, wanted to stand up to Britain over the Oregon territory issue

Andrew Jackson

ignored the Supreme Court's protection of the southeast Indian tribes

Martin van Buren

New Yorker, president, architect of Independent Treasury Bill

Worcester vs. Georgia

Supreme Court ruled that Georgia law could not be enforced in the Cherokee Nation

John Q. Adams

lost the 1828 election to Jackson

John Tyler

first vice-president to become president when a president died

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

established boundary of Maine (between US and Britain); US gained more land (including iron ore in MN), Britain gained Halifax/Quebec route

William H. Harrison

first president to die while in office

Specie Circular

decree that required all public lands to be purchased with "hard," or metallic, money

John Slidell

sent to Mexico City to offer $25 million for California and territory to the east

"pet banks"

banks in which Jackson deposited federal money; these were his chief weapon in his struggle with the BUS

Stephen F. Austin

granted land tract by Mexico to bring settlers of the Roman Catholic faith

John C. Fremont

helped overthrow Mexican rule in California

Robert Hayne

SC senator who sought to safeguard minority interests in the South in a debate war with Webster

Sam Houston commander-in-chief

former TN governor; tragic marriage, alcoholism, living with Indians, Texas

Zachary Taylor, Winfield Scott

the two American generals who led the main invasion forces in Mexico

Maysville Road Bill

vetoed by Jackson, would have provided funds for internal improvements

Kit Carson

guide who accompanied Fremont; showed Kearney the way from Santa Fe to CA

James Beckwith (Beckwourth)

born a slave (white father, mulatto mother), freed in 1810; mountain man in VA; lived among the Crow Indians in the West; member of Gen. Kearney's forces in CA

James G. Birney

Kentucky anti-slavery leader; presidential candidate of Liberty party in 1840, free soil (keep slavery out of territories) platform


Oregon Country


Mexican Cession


Gadsden Purchase


British Cession


Louisiana Purchase


Texas Annexation


US (Appalachian to Mississippi Rv.)


W. Florida


British Cession (East)


E. Florida

Benjamin Henry Latrobe

British born; first professional architect in US (classical revival style); completed the Capitol building in Washington, DC; cathedral in Baltimore

Daniel Webster, Henry Clay

two able and experienced leaders of the Whigs who had hoped to govern through a weak president 1841-1845

"tyranny of the majority"

term used be de Tocqueville in Democracy in America which described why, although individuals have legal freedom in American democracy, there is great pressure for them to conform

John Jacob Astor

fur trader and real-estate speculator millionaire

Mary Lyon

raised money to launch a "Female Seminary," now Mount Holyoke College

Hannah Forsham Lee

woman author who wrote on living within one's income (Three Experiences in Living) in response to 1837 economic pains

John James Audubon

wrote Birds of America

Margaret Fuller

edited transcendentalist journal, The Dial

Angelina Grimke, Sarah Grimke

sisters who spoke at anti-slavery gatherings

James Fenimore Cooper

wrote of the rugged individual; hero - Natty Bumpo

Charlotte Cushman

most talented actress of the 1800s

Washington Irving

wrote Knickerbocker's History of New York

Edgar Allan Poe

excelled in the horror short story

John C. Calhoun

as vice-president under Jackson, he changed from nationalist to a Southern sectionalist

James K. Polk

first dark horse candidate to be nominated for presidency

Peggy Eaton

daughter of Washington boardinghouse keeper who married Secretary of War under Jackson

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