75 terms

unit 4

Ralph Waldo Emerson
wrote "The American Scholar" and "Self Reliance," said, "European stretches to Alleghenies; America lies beyond." Transcendentalist
Henry David Thoreau
wrote "Walden" and "Civil Disobedience"
John Humphrey Noyes
perfectionist, established Oneida community
Anna Lee
worshiped by the Shakers as the female reincarnation of God
Charles Fourier
French advocate of "Phalanxes"
Robert Owen
Scottish industrialist, founded New Harmony
Charles G. Finney
greatest revivalist of the Second Great Awakening
Horace Mann
"Father" of the public school movement
William H. McGuffey
author of the famous reader used by school children in the 19th century
Cessare Becarria
Italian who wrote for prison reform and against capital punishment
Dorothea Dix
argued for separate asylums for the mentally ill
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
for women's suffrage, refused to include "obey" in her marriage vows
Lucretia Mott
Quaker, helped organize the Seneca Falls convention
Joseph Smith
founder of the Mormons, killed by an angry mob
Brigham Young
led the Mormons to Utah
Alexis de Toqueville
wrote Democracy in America
North American Phalanx
best example of a successful Fourier Phalanx
followers of a Calvinistic Baptist minister who taught that the second coming of Christ would happen in 1844
taught that God had once been a man and that all men could be divine
The North (of the U.S.)
% of the school children in this area about 70%
The South (of the U.S.)
% of the school children in this area about 33%
Auburn, NY
first of the penitentiaries or criminal asylums in 1821
Worcester, MA
first of the new mental asylums, established in 1833
Maine Law of 1851
forbade sale of alcohol
Seneca Falls, NY
site of the first women's rights conventions
Sara Josepha Hale
female editor of Godey's Lady Book
Thomas H. Gallaudet
opened the first school for pupils with hearing impediments
solitary confinement
believed to contribute to moral regeneration of the inmate
William Ellery Channing
influential Unitarian minister
Thomas Hart Benton
Missouri senator, expansionist, wanted to stand up to Britain over the Oregon territory issue
Andrew Jackson
ignored the Supreme Court's protection of the southeast Indian tribes
Martin van Buren
New Yorker, president, architect of Independent Treasury Bill
Worcester vs. Georgia
Supreme Court ruled that Georgia law could not be enforced in the Cherokee Nation
John Q. Adams
lost the 1828 election to Jackson
John Tyler
first vice-president to become president when a president died
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
established boundary of Maine (between US and Britain); US gained more land (including iron ore in MN), Britain gained Halifax/Quebec route
William H. Harrison
first president to die while in office
Specie Circular
decree that required all public lands to be purchased with "hard," or metallic, money
John Slidell
sent to Mexico City to offer $25 million for California and territory to the east
"pet banks"
banks in which Jackson deposited federal money; these were his chief weapon in his struggle with the BUS
Stephen F. Austin
granted land tract by Mexico to bring settlers of the Roman Catholic faith
John C. Fremont
helped overthrow Mexican rule in California
Robert Hayne
SC senator who sought to safeguard minority interests in the South in a debate war with Webster
Sam Houston commander-in-chief
former TN governor; tragic marriage, alcoholism, living with Indians, Texas
Zachary Taylor, Winfield Scott
the two American generals who led the main invasion forces in Mexico
Maysville Road Bill
vetoed by Jackson, would have provided funds for internal improvements
Kit Carson
guide who accompanied Fremont; showed Kearney the way from Santa Fe to CA
James Beckwith (Beckwourth)
born a slave (white father, mulatto mother), freed in 1810; mountain man in VA; lived among the Crow Indians in the West; member of Gen. Kearney's forces in CA
James G. Birney
Kentucky anti-slavery leader; presidential candidate of Liberty party in 1840, free soil (keep slavery out of territories) platform
Oregon Country
Mexican Cession
Gadsden Purchase
British Cession
Louisiana Purchase
Texas Annexation
US (Appalachian to Mississippi Rv.)
W. Florida
British Cession (East)
E. Florida
Benjamin Henry Latrobe
British born; first professional architect in US (classical revival style); completed the Capitol building in Washington, DC; cathedral in Baltimore
Daniel Webster, Henry Clay
two able and experienced leaders of the Whigs who had hoped to govern through a weak president 1841-1845
"tyranny of the majority"
term used be de Tocqueville in Democracy in America which described why, although individuals have legal freedom in American democracy, there is great pressure for them to conform
John Jacob Astor
fur trader and real-estate speculator millionaire
Mary Lyon
raised money to launch a "Female Seminary," now Mount Holyoke College
Hannah Forsham Lee
woman author who wrote on living within one's income (Three Experiences in Living) in response to 1837 economic pains
John James Audubon
wrote Birds of America
Margaret Fuller
edited transcendentalist journal, The Dial
Angelina Grimke, Sarah Grimke
sisters who spoke at anti-slavery gatherings
James Fenimore Cooper
wrote of the rugged individual; hero - Natty Bumpo
Charlotte Cushman
most talented actress of the 1800s
Washington Irving
wrote Knickerbocker's History of New York
Edgar Allan Poe
excelled in the horror short story
John C. Calhoun
as vice-president under Jackson, he changed from nationalist to a Southern sectionalist
James K. Polk
first dark horse candidate to be nominated for presidency
Peggy Eaton
daughter of Washington boardinghouse keeper who married Secretary of War under Jackson