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Chapter 2.1 Assessment The Nature of Matter
Terms in this set (26)
The study of chemistry begins with the basic unit of matter.
The subatomic particles that make up atoms are protons. electrons, and neutrons. Atoms are also incredibly small.
Protons and neutrons have about the same mass. Protons are + and neutrons have no charge at all
Strong forces bind protons and neutrons together to form the nucleus, at the center of the atom.
It is a negatively charged particle with only 1/1840 the mass of a proton.
Because atoms have equal numbers of electrons and protons, their positive and negative charges balance out, and atoms themselves are electrically neutral.
An element is a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an element.
Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain.
The total number of protons neutrons in the nucleus of an atom are called mass numbers.
The weighted average of the masses of an elements isotopes
Because they have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties.
A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.
The physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually very different from those of the elements from which it is formed.
Electrons that are available to form bonds
The main types of bonds are ionic and covalent bonds.
It is formed when one or more electrons are transferred fro one atom to another.
Atoms are electrically neutral because they have equal numbers of protons and electrons.
positively and negatively charged atoms.
atoms that lose electrons become positively charged
atoms that gain electrons become have a negative charge
electrons that are shared by atoms
Single Covalent Bond
When atoms share two electrons.
when atoms share four electrons
when atoms share six electrons
Molecule (look at page 37 at the diagram.
The structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds. It is also the smallest unit of most compounds.
Van der Waals Forces
Not as strong as ionic bonds or covalent bonds, they can hold molecules together, especially when the molecules are large.
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