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48 terms

Hormones

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List the hormones produced by the hypothalamus
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH), Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone (GHIH), Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GRH), Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH), Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone (PIH), Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), Thyrothropin Releasing Hormone (TRH)
Which gland secretes Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH), what is the target tissue, and what is its function?
Secreted by: hypothalamus
Target tissue: anterior pituitary
Function: Stimulates secretion of Growth Hormone (hGH)
What factors stimulate release of GHRH?
Hypoglycemia, decreased fatty acids in the blood, increased amino acids in the blood, deep sleep, increased sympathetic nervous system stimulation.
What factors inhibit release of GHRH?
High levels of growth hormone (hGH) in the blood
Which gland secretes Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone (GHIH), what is the target tissue, and what is its function?
Secreted by: hypothalamus
Target tissue: anterior pituitary
Function: Inhibits secretion of Growth Hormone (hGH) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
What factors stimulate release of GHIH?
Hyperglycemia, increased fatty acids in the blood, decreased amino acids in the blood, REM sleep, decreased thyroid hormones in the blood, increased levels of hGH.
Which gland secretes Growth Hormone (hGH), what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: anterior pituitary
Target tissues: bone, skeletal muscle, cartilage, liver
Function: stimulates secretion of insulin-like growth factors
What is the function of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)?
Increases cell uptake of amino acids which leads to cell growth, stimulates lipolysis which releases fatty acids into the blood, induces glucose sparing by body cells, increases gluconeogenesis by the liver
Which gland secretes Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH), what is the target tissue, and what is its function?
Secreted by: hypothalamus
Target tissue: anterior pituitary
Function: Stimulates secretion of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Which gland secretes Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), what is the target tissue, and what is its function?
Secreted by: anterior pituitary
Target tissues: testes, ovaries
Function: stimulates sperm production in testes; initiates formation of follicles in ovaries and stimulates estrogen secretion
Which gland secretes Luteinizing Hormone (LH), what is the target tissue, and what is its function?
Secreted by: anterior pituitary
Target tissues: testes, ovaries
Function: stimulates secretion of testosterone in testes; triggers ovulation and creation of a luteinizing body, and stimulates secretion of estrogen and progesterone by ovaries
Which gland secretes Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH), what is the target tissue, and what is its function?
Secreted by: hypothalamus
Target tissue: anterior pituitary
Function: Stimulates secretion of Prolactin (PRL)
Which gland secretes Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone (PIH, also called dopamine), what is the target tissue, and what is its function?
Secreted by: hypothalamus
Target tissue: anterior pituitary
Function: Inhibits secretion of Prolactin (PRL) and Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Which gland secretes Prolactin (PRL), what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: anterior pituitary
Target tissues: mammary gland
Function: stimulates production and secretion of milk but only in the presence of oxytocin
Which gland secretes Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), what is the target tissue, and what is its function?
Secreted by: hypothalamus
Target tissue: anterior pituitary
Function: Stimulates secretion of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) and Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Which gland secretes Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: anterior pituitary
Target tissues: adrenal cortex
Function: stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol) by the adrenal cortex
Which other factors stimulate secretion of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)?
Hypoglycemia, physical trauma, IL-1
What inhibits ACTH release?
Increased cortisol levels
What inhibits CRH release?
Increased cortisol levels
Which gland secretes Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH), what is the target tissue, and what is its function?
Secreted by: hypothalamus
Target tissue: anterior pituitary
Function: Stimulates secretion of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Which gland secretes Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: anterior pituitary
Target tissues: thyroid gland
Function: stimulates growth of thyroid gland and secretion of Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
Which gland secretes Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: posterior pituitary
Target tissues: kidneys
Function: decreases water lost in urine by returning water to the blood, prevents water loss in sweat glands, causes constriction of arterioles
What factors stimulate ADH release?
Dehydration, high blood osmolarity
What factors inhibit ADH release?
Overhydration, low blood osmolarity, alcohol
Which gland secretes Oxytocin, what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: posterior pituitary
Target tissues: uterus and mammary glands
Function: stimulates uterine contractions during labor, and milk ejection during suckling
Which gland secretes Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3), what are the target tissues, and what are their function?
Secreted by: thyroid
Target tissues: most body cells
Function: increases metabolism and basal metabolic rate by stimulating glycolysis, beta oxidation, and lipolysis; increases heat production by increasing the synthesis of Na/K ATPase; enhances the actions of the sympathetic NS by up-regulating beta adrenergic receptors
Which gland secretes Calcitonin, what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: thyroid
Target tissues: osteoclast cells in bones
Function: decreases blood calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclasts
Which gland secretes Parathyroid Hormone, what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: parathyroid
Target tissues: osteoclast cells in bones
Function: increases blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts to break down bone matrix; increases reabsorption of Ca by kidney; promotes formation of calcitriol by kidney
Which gland secretes Aldolsterone, what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: adrenal cortex
Target tissues: kidneys
Function: decreases sodium and water loss in urine by increasing reabsorption of Na in kidney; increases water absorption in the GI tract; promotes excretion of K an hydrogen ions in kidney
What factors stimulate secretion of aldolsterone?
Decreased blood volume from dehydration or hemorrhage, Na deficiency, increased K levels in extracellular fluid, angiotensin II
From what part of the adrenal cortex are the mineralocorticoids made and which hormone is a mineralocorticoid?
Zona glomerulosa; aldolsterone
Which gland secretes Cortisol, what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: adrenal cortex
Target tissues: liver, muscle, and cells involved in body defenses
Function: increases resistance to stress by making nutrients available through promotion of gluconeogenesis, increasing the rate or protein catabolism and lipolysis; increases blood pressure through vasoconstriction; anti-inflammatory and immunosuppresive action through decreasing the release of histamine from mast cells, decreasing capillary permeability, depressing phagocytes and inhibiting WBCs
What factors stimulate secretion of cortisol?
Stressors stmulate CRH secretion from the hypothalamus which stimulates ACTH secretion from the anterior pituitary which stimulates cortisol secretion.
From what part of the adrenal cortex are the glucocorticoids made and which hormone is a glucocorticoid?
Zona fasciculata; cortisol
Which gland secretes Androgens, what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: adrenal cortex
Target tissues: uterus, mammary glands, and other body cells involved in secondary sex characteristics
Function: insignificant in males; increases sex drive in females and may be converted to estrogen in postmenopausal women
From what part of the adrenal cortex are androgens made?
Zona reticularis
Which gland secretes Epinephrine (Epi) and Norepinephrine (NE), what are the target tissues, and what are their functions?
Secreted by: adrenal medulla
Target tissues: body cells involved in fight-or-flight response
Function: promotes fight-or-flight response; mimic the actions of the sympathetic nervous system
Which cells of the adrenal medulla make Epi and NE? From what part of the nervous system do they receive direct innervation?
Chromaffin cells; sympathetic nervous system
Which gland secretes Insulin, what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: beta cells of the pancreas
Target tissues: most body cells
Function: decreases blood glucose levels by transporting glucose into body cells; increases protein, fatty acid, and glycogen synthesis;
Which gland secretes Glucagon, what are the target tissues, and what is its function?
Secreted by: alpha cells of the pancreas
Target tissues: most body cells
Function: increases blood glucose levels by stimulating the liver to break down glycogen into glucose and increase gluconeogenesis
What factor stimulates insulin release?
Hyperglycemia
What factor inhibits insulin release?
Hypoglycemia
What factor stimulates glucagon release?
Hypoglycemia
What factor inhibits glucagon release?
Hyperglycemia
Which hormones are stimulated by hypoglycemia?
Glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone
Which cells secrete cholecystokinin (CCK), what is the stimulus, and what are the actions?
Source: Enteroendocrine cells in small intestine
Stimulus: Presence of fats and proteins
Actions: Stimulates contraction of gallbladder; stimulates secretion of pancreatic juices (enzymes); inhibits gastric emptying
Which cells secrete secretin, what is the stimulus, and what are the actions?
Source: Enteroendocrine cells in small intestine
Stimulus: Change of pH in duodenum; increased acidity
Actions: Stimulates bile secretion from liver; stimulates secretion of pancreatic juices (bicarb); inhibits gastric emptying
Which cells secrete gastrin, what is the stimulus, and what are the actions?
Source: G cells in stomach
Stimulus: Distension of stomach
Actions: Stimulates secretion of gastric juices; stimulates stomach peristalsis (gastric emptying)