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an autonomous political unit made up of a city and its surrounding lands


a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule on their behalf


a series of wars launched by European Christians in 1096 to capture the Holy Land(Palestine) from Muslims


a time of renewed interest in learning and the arts that lasted from the 14th through 16th centuries; it began in the Italian city-states and spread north to all of Europe


a structure that carries water over long distances


the economic union of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg


a movement in western europe beginning in 1517, when many Christians broke away from the Catholic Church and started Protestant churches; this led to mutual hostility and religious wars that toare apart Europe


a political system prevailing in Europe from about the 9th century to about the 15th centuries in which a king allowed nobles the use of this land in exchange for their military service and their protection of the land


the belief that people should be loyal to their nation, the people with whom they share land, culture, and history


the Nazi program of mass murder of European Jews during World War II

Berlin Wall

a wall erected by East Germany in 1961 to cut the capital of Berlin in 2, later dismantled in 1989

Nordic countries

countries of northern Europe, including Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden


A representative lawmaking body whose members are elected or appointed and in which legislative and executive functions are combined.

Silicon Glen

the section of Scotland between Glasgow and Edinburgh, named for its high concentration of high-tech companies


a common currency proposed by the European Union for its member nations

cultural crossroads

a place where various cultures cross paths


the process of breaking up a region into small, mutually hostile units

satellite nation

a nation dominated by another country

Market economy

a type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by the demand from consumers. also called a demand economy or capitalism

folk art

handmade items, such as pottery, woodcarving, and traditional costumes, produced by rural people with traditional lifestyles, instead of professional artists


discrimination against Jewish people

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