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proclamation line of 1763

drew a line from north to south; colonists could not settle west of line

sugar act

raised taxes on raw sugar and molasses; new taxes on silk,.

stamp act

taxed printed materials, newspapers, pamphlets, wills, etc.; raise $ to pay for american expenses

declaratory act

parl. had power to make laws in the colonies

townshend acts

taxed america for the expenses of brit.

george grenville

started the taxation movement in order to pay for brit. debt and troops in america

charles townshend

introduced townshend acts

george III

declared proclamation of 1763

boston massacre

colonists resistance turned into violence in which brit. soldiers shot into a crowd, killing 5 people

sam adams

defender of colonial rights; protested against brit. taxations

boston tea party

colonists boarded brit. ships at night and dumped the tea into boston harbor; action against taxation

intolerable acts

coercive and quebec acts; outraged colonists

quebec act

extended quebec into america; brit. attempt to control colonial gov.'s

second continental congress

replaced first continental congress; met after revolution began; created continental army

bunker hill

built american confidence; militia/continental army stood up to brit.; considered a victory

thomas paine

wrote common sense; used lit. as a tool to fight against brit.; gained support for america and opposition against brit.

declaration of independence

draft by continental congress that declared america a separate country from brit.; independent

thomas jefferson

drafted the declaration of independence

benedict arnold

american general; fought at saratoga and yorktown; gave info on american army to brit., and switched sides for battle of yorktown

john hancock

led comittee of safety; prominent anti-federalist

george washington

head general for american revolution; became president after the war

william howe

brit. commanding general

ben franklin

sent as a negotiater to france for troops during the revolution; helped write the treaty of paris

john adams

helped write treaty of paris

john locke

defines nature as a state of equality- governened by the law of nature; legislative gov.

jean jacques rousseau

believed soc. corrupts humans; a soc. contract is justified in order to gain security

baron de montesquieu

rejected revolution; gov.'s exist to protect pol. liberty; constitutional monarchy should exist; promotes a separation of powers: executive, legislative, and judicial branches


questions notions of rel.; promoted the enlightenment

thomas hobbes

kings are needed to provide strict, absolute control; kings will be held accountable by God


americans who supported the birt. during the war


american victory; turning point of war; improved american morale; france sends troops to help america

abigail adams

convinced john adams, her husband, to improve the rights of women; "remember the ladies"

joseph plum martin

wrote a diary during the war; only biography of continental army

count de rochamdeau

french general who helped america fight


brit. general; surrendered at yorktown where the war ended


last major battle of the war; cornwallis surrendered to washington

treaty of paris

treaty b/w america and brit.; brit. recognized america as an independent country with the mississippi as its western border; brit. gave florida back to spain; france regained colonies in africa

articles of confederation

plan for united states; weak gov.

northwest ordinance

basis for governing western territory; created new territory in OH, IN, etc.

shay's rebellion

MA decided to raise taxes, especially on farmers; Shay was leader of rebellion

constitutional convention

convention which met to strengthen national gov. and create equal representation b/w states; proposed great compromise

great compromise (VA/NJ plans)

house of rep.'s according to state population, with senate equal representation; VA plan: based on state's populations; NJ plan: small states interests with equal representation

three-fifths compromise

every five slaves would count as three free people for determining representation and taxation

james madison

created VA plan; serve at constitutional convention

alexander hamilton

recommended congress call its own convention ~>constitutional convention


supporters of the constitution; power divided b/w state and natl. gov.'s


people opposing the constitution; problem of whether natl. or state gov.'s should be supreme

bill of rights

federalists promised to attach to the constitution; summary of fundamental rights guaranteed to the people

william paterson

proposed NJ plan

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