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49 terms

U.S. History Unit 2 Vocabulary

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proclamation line of 1763
drew a line from north to south; colonists could not settle west of line
sugar act
raised taxes on raw sugar and molasses; new taxes on silk,.
stamp act
taxed printed materials, newspapers, pamphlets, wills, etc.; raise $ to pay for american expenses
declaratory act
parl. had power to make laws in the colonies
townshend acts
taxed america for the expenses of brit.
george grenville
started the taxation movement in order to pay for brit. debt and troops in america
charles townshend
introduced townshend acts
george III
declared proclamation of 1763
boston massacre
colonists resistance turned into violence in which brit. soldiers shot into a crowd, killing 5 people
sam adams
defender of colonial rights; protested against brit. taxations
boston tea party
colonists boarded brit. ships at night and dumped the tea into boston harbor; action against taxation
intolerable acts
coercive and quebec acts; outraged colonists
quebec act
extended quebec into america; brit. attempt to control colonial gov.'s
second continental congress
replaced first continental congress; met after revolution began; created continental army
bunker hill
built american confidence; militia/continental army stood up to brit.; considered a victory
thomas paine
wrote common sense; used lit. as a tool to fight against brit.; gained support for america and opposition against brit.
declaration of independence
draft by continental congress that declared america a separate country from brit.; independent
thomas jefferson
drafted the declaration of independence
benedict arnold
american general; fought at saratoga and yorktown; gave info on american army to brit., and switched sides for battle of yorktown
john hancock
led comittee of safety; prominent anti-federalist
george washington
head general for american revolution; became president after the war
william howe
brit. commanding general
ben franklin
sent as a negotiater to france for troops during the revolution; helped write the treaty of paris
john adams
helped write treaty of paris
john locke
defines nature as a state of equality- governened by the law of nature; legislative gov.
jean jacques rousseau
believed soc. corrupts humans; a soc. contract is justified in order to gain security
baron de montesquieu
rejected revolution; gov.'s exist to protect pol. liberty; constitutional monarchy should exist; promotes a separation of powers: executive, legislative, and judicial branches
voltaire
questions notions of rel.; promoted the enlightenment
thomas hobbes
kings are needed to provide strict, absolute control; kings will be held accountable by God
loyalists
americans who supported the birt. during the war
saratoga
american victory; turning point of war; improved american morale; france sends troops to help america
abigail adams
convinced john adams, her husband, to improve the rights of women; "remember the ladies"
joseph plum martin
wrote a diary during the war; only biography of continental army
count de rochamdeau
french general who helped america fight
cornwallis
brit. general; surrendered at yorktown where the war ended
yorktown
last major battle of the war; cornwallis surrendered to washington
treaty of paris
treaty b/w america and brit.; brit. recognized america as an independent country with the mississippi as its western border; brit. gave florida back to spain; france regained colonies in africa
articles of confederation
plan for united states; weak gov.
northwest ordinance
basis for governing western territory; created new territory in OH, IN, etc.
shay's rebellion
MA decided to raise taxes, especially on farmers; Shay was leader of rebellion
constitutional convention
convention which met to strengthen national gov. and create equal representation b/w states; proposed great compromise
great compromise (VA/NJ plans)
house of rep.'s according to state population, with senate equal representation; VA plan: based on state's populations; NJ plan: small states interests with equal representation
three-fifths compromise
every five slaves would count as three free people for determining representation and taxation
james madison
created VA plan; serve at constitutional convention
alexander hamilton
recommended congress call its own convention ~>constitutional convention
federalists
supporters of the constitution; power divided b/w state and natl. gov.'s
anti-federalists
people opposing the constitution; problem of whether natl. or state gov.'s should be supreme
bill of rights
federalists promised to attach to the constitution; summary of fundamental rights guaranteed to the people
william paterson
proposed NJ plan