Terms in this set (43)
A literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, or wit. Irony, sarcasm, or caustic [bitterly cutting/burning] wit used to attack or expose folly, vice, or stupidity.
Gentle and humorous. Ex. Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift. After the Roman satirist Horace: Satire in which the voice is indulgent, tolerant, amused, and witty. The speaker holds up to gentle ridicule the absurdities and follies of human beings, aiming at producing in the reader not the anger of a Juvenal, but a wry smile.
Heavy or biting. Ex. A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift. After the Roman satirist Juvenal: Formal satire in which the speaker attacks vice and error with contempt and indignation. ____________ ____________ in its realism and its harshness is in strong contrast to Horatian satire.
A form of comedy characterized by ridiculous exaggeration and distortion, especially of language. A serious subject may be treated frivolously or a frivolous subject seriously. The essential quality that makes for _______________ is the discrepancy between subject matter and style. That is, a style ordinarily dignified may be used for nonsensical matter, or a style very nonsensical may be used to ridicule a weighty subject. [See Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock for an example of high burlesque.]
Humorous or satirical mimicry; imitative of style. A composition that imitates the serious manner and characteristic features of a particular work, or the distinctive style of its maker, and applies the imitation to a lowly or comically inappropriate subject. Often a _____________ is more powerful in its influence on affairs of current importance--politics for instance--than its original composition. For ____________ to be successful, the reader must know the original text that is being ridiculed. It is a variety of burlesque.
Reductio ad absurdum
A popular satiric technique (especially in Swift), whereby the author agrees enthusiastically with the basic attitudes or assumptions he wishes to satirize and, by pushing them to a logically ridiculous extreme, exposes the foolishness of the original attitudes and assumptions. ____________ are sometimes dangerous either because the reader does not recognize the satire at work or because the reader fails to identify the target clearly.
A representation of a person that is exaggerated for comic effect. A literary style focusing on one characteristic, quality, or feature of a person or group of people, exaggerating it to a humorous level. _____________ are most often and obvious in political cartoons
To enlarge, increase, or represent something beyond normal bounds so that it becomes ridiculous and its faults can be seen.
Verbal cleverness. ____ suggests intellectual brilliance and delight in its ability to entertain, and requires verbal skill beyond a simple knowledge of words. ________ is often used ironically, or even sarcastically, to ridicule or insult someone.
A brief, witty statement. Short, comic remark typically containing a "surprise" at the end, which makes it humorous. While clever, _________________ are often obscene or nasty in nature. Successful ______________ are used to insult another.
A person's ability to respond to an insult quickly and directly, often using sarcasm or wit in the response.
A reference to another famous or well-known event, work of literature, person or group of people, film, artwork, etc.
The author's attitude toward a subject. In satire, _____ is often achieved through diction (word choice) and incongruous juxtaposition.
Antithesis (pl. antitheses)
Opposition/contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction. Using opposite phrases in close conjunction. Examples might be, "I burn and I freeze," or "Her character is white as sunlight, black as midnight." The best ______________ express their contrary ideas in a balanced sentence. It can be a contrast of opposites: "Evil men fear authority; good men cherish it."
To present things that are out of place or are absurd in relation to its surroundings. Particular techniques include oxymoron, metaphor, and irony.
Oxymoron (pl. oxymora)
An apparent contradiction of terms or words. Using contradiction in a manner that oddly makes sense on a deeper level. Simple or joking examples include such ____________ as jumbo shrimp, sophisticated rednecks, and military intelligence. The richest literary __________ seem to reveal a deeper truth through their contradictions. These _____________ are sometimes called paradoxes.
To present the opposite of the normal order. __________ can focus on the the order of events, such as serving dessert before the main dish or having breakfast for dinner. Additionally, ____________ can focus on hierarchical order—for instance, when a young child makes all the
decisions for a family or when an administrative assistant dictates what the company president decides and does.
Incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs. Saying one thing and meaning another. The expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect. _________ is something that has a different or opposite result from what is expected.
A device where what is said is the opposite of what is meant. Sarcasm, a form of
irony employed to insult or slight, is its crudest form.
Antiphrasis irony (under category of verbal irony)
A figure of speech in which a single word is used in a sense directly opposite to its usual meaning, for example naming a giant Tiny.
Meiosis irony (under category of verbal irony)
A rhetorical understatement by which something is referred to in terms less important than it really deserves, for example calling a fatal wound a scratch.
Ironic simile (under category of verbal irony)
Verbal irony where a speaker uses a form of simile to communicate the opposite of what they mean, for example clear as mud.
Structural irony (under category of irony)
This device involves the use of a naïve or deluded hero or unreliable narrator whose view of the world differs widely from the true circumstances recognized by the author and readers. It flatters its readers' intelligence at the expense of a character (or fictional narrator).
Dramatic irony (under category of irony)
A similar sense of detached superiority to that of structural irony is achieved with this device. The audience knows more about a character's situation than the character does, foreseeing an outcome contrary to the character's expectations, and thus ascribing a sharply different sense to some of the character's own statements. (This is often called tragic irony when in a tragedy.)
Situational irony (under category of irony)
Irony involving a situation in which actions have an effect that is opposite from what was intended, so that the outcome is contrary to what was expected.
Cosmic irony (under category of irony)
Used to denote a view of people as dupes of a cruelly mocking Fate. Closely connected with situational irony, it arises from sharp contrasts between reality and human ideals, or between human intentions and actual results. The resulting situation is poignantly contrary to what was expected or intended.
Historical irony (under category of irony)
Cosmic irony through time. _______________ relates to real events that happened that, when seen in retrospect, had vastly different outcomes than predicted at the time. For example, Chinese alchemists discovered gunpowder when looking for a way to create immortality. The result of their discovery was the opposite of what they were looking for.
Other techniques of satire
The degradation or devaluation of a victim by reducing his stature or dignity; befitting a change in size. The removal of signs of rank and status (usually clothes). Animal imagery, which reduces man's purposeful actions, the ambitious aims of which he is proud and the lusts of which he is ashamed, all to the level of brute instinct. Vegetable or mineral imagery. Destruction of the symbol (a satirist who wants to show that an emblem is being used for unjust ends pretends not to understand its symbolic connotations; for example, the flag becomes just a piece of cloth. The person fails to see the symbolic values which society attaches to apparently trivial objects and actions.)
Monologue (one structure of satire)
The satirist usually is speaking from behind a thinly veiled mask. He states his view of a problem, cites examples, and endeavors to impose his views on the reader/listener.
Parody (one structure of satire)
The satirist takes an existing work of literature that was created with a serious purpose, or a literary form in which some reputable books and poems have been written. He then makes the work look ridiculous by infusing it with incongruous ideas; he makes the ideas look foolish by putting them into an inappropriate form.
Narrative (one structure of satire)
Here the author does not appear. (Fiction speaks for him/her.)
Pessimists (one type of character in satire)
People with a gloomy outlook of the world and always expect the worst to happen.
Misanthropes (one type of character in satire)
Those who despise and distrust the human race.
Cynics (one type of character in satire)
People who do not trust the sincerity and/or motives of others.
Optimists (one type of character in satire)
A person who counters the pessimist. Those who view the world with hope and expect the best outcomes.
Philanthropists (one type of character in satire)
One, opposed to misanthropes, who works to better the world and love the human race.
Pollyanna (one type of character in satire)
Someone who trust "the sun will come out tomorrow" regardless of how many misfortunes they must endure.
The act of distorting something so it seems to mean something unintended
An indirect hint, suggestion, implication, or reference (malicious)
Use of two different words in a grammatically similar way but producing incongruous meanings.
Use of words alike in sounds but different in meaning; humorous play on words.
The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, etc.
A short story that illustrates a moral or religious belief (often with animal characters)