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Oxygen in blood is carried primarily in the form of?


Carbon dioxide is carried as?

dissolved CO2 and carbaminohemoglobin and bicarbonate ion

What is the equation for the chemical reaction that occurs for the transport of carbon dioxide as bicarbonate ions in blood?


T/F The three basic steps of respiration are pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and cellular respiration

False-external, internal and cellular

T/F For inhalation to occur, air pressure in the alveoli must be less than atmospheric pressure; for exhalation to occur, air pressure in the alveoli must be greater than atmospheric pressure


What structural changes occur from primary bronchi to terminal bronchioles?

the mucous membrane changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium to nonciliated simple cuboidal epithelium, the amount of smooth muscle increases, incomplete rings of cartilage disappear

What would cause oxygen to dissociate more readily from hemoglobin?

low Po2, hypercapnia, low levels of BPG (2,3-bisphosphoglycerate)

T/F Normal exhalation during quiet breathing is an active process involving intensive muscle contraction?


T/F Passive exhalation results from elastic recoil of the chest wall and lungs?


T/F Air flow during breathing is due to a pressure gradient between the lungs and the atmospheric air?


T/F During normal breathing, the pressure between the two pleural layers (intrapleural pressure) is always subatmospheric?


T/F Surface tension of alveolar fluid facilitates inhalation?


What factors affect the rate of external respiration?

Partial pressure differences of gases, surface area for gas exchange, diffusion distance, solubility and molecular weight of the gases

The most important factor in determining the percent oxygen saturation of hemoglobin is?

the partial pressure of oxygen

T/F Central chemoreceptors are stimulated by changes in Pco2, H+, and Po2


T/F Respiratory rate increases during the initial onset of exercise due to input to the inspiratory area from propriceptors


T/F When baroreceptors in the lungs are stimulated, the expiratory area is activated


T/F Stimulation of the limbic system can result in excitation of the inspiratory area


T/F Sudden severe pain causes brief apnea, while prolonged somatic pain causes an increase in respiratory rate


T/F The respiratory rate increases during fever


Total volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute

minute ventilation

tidal volume+inspiratory reserve volume+expiratory reserve volume

vital capacity

additional amount of air inhaled beyond tidal volume when taking a very deep breath

inspiratory reserve volume

residual volume+expiratory reserve volume

functional residual capacity

amount of air remaining in lungs after expiratory reserve volume is expelled

residual volume

tidal volume+inspiratory reserve volume

inspiratory capacity

vital capacity+residual volume

total lung capacity

volume of air in one breath

tidal volume

amount of air exhaled in forced exhalation following a normal exhalation

expiratory reserve volume

provides a medical and legal tool for determining if a baby was born dead or died after birth

minimal volume

functions as a passageway for air and food, provides a resonating chamber for speech sounds, and houses the tonsils


site of external respiration


connects the laryngopharynx with the trachea; houses the vocal cords


serous membrane that surrounds the lungs


functions in warming, moistening, and filtering air; receives olfactory stimuli; is a resonating chamber for sound


simple squamous epithelial cells that form a continuous lining of the alveolar wall; sites of gas exchange

type I Alveolar cells

forms anterior wall of the larynx

thyroid cartilage

a tubular passageway for air connecting the larynx to the bronchi


secrete alveolar fluid and surfactant

type II Alveolar Cells

forms inferior wall of larynx; landmark for tracheotomy

cricoid cartilage

prevents food or fluid from entering the airways


air passageways entering the lungs


ridge covered by a sensitive mucous membrane; irritation triggers cough reflex


a deficiency of oxygen at tissue level


above normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide


normal quiet breathing


deep, abdominal breathing

diaphragmatic breathing

the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall can be expanded


hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction to divert pulmonary blood from poorly ventilated to well-ventilated regions of the lungs

ventilation-perfusion coupling

absence of breathing


rapid and deep breathing


shallow, chest breathing

costal breathing

prevents excessive inflation of the lungs

inflation (Hering-Breuer reflex)

the lower the amount of oxyhemoglobin, the higher the carbon dioxide-carrying capacity of the blood

Haldane effect

controls the basic rhythm of respiration

medullary rhythmicity area

active during normal inhalation; sends nerve impulses to external intercostals and diaphragm

inspiratory area

sends stimulatory impulses to inspiratory area that activate it and prolong inhalation

apneustic area

as acidity increases, the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen decreases and oxygen dissociates more readily from hemoglobin; shifts oxygen-dissociation curve to the right

Bohr Effect

active during forceful exhalation

expiratory area

pressure of a gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container

Boyles law

transmits inhibitory impulses to turn off the inspiratory area before the lungs become too full of air

pneumotaxic area

the quantity of a gas that dissolves in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility

Henry's law

relates to the partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases whereby each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure as if all the other gases were not present

Daltons law

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