Congress of Vienna
Terms in this set (46)
The goal of the Congress of Vienna was...
To put Europe back together the way it was before the Revolution
What is the Congress of Vienna?
Peace Conference after Napoleonic Wars
Who writes the peace treaty?
The Great Powers
Who were the Great Powers?
UK, Austria, Russia, Prussia, France
Who were the Medium Powers?
Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Netherlands, Denmark-Norway, Saxony, Savoy/Piedmont, etc.
Who were the Low/Dinky Powers?
Ex-German states, ex-Italian states, Switzerland, etc.
UK's delegate was...
Castlereagh and Wellington
Austria's delegate was...
Francis and Metternich
Russia's delegate was...
Tsar Alexander I
Why was the Tsar so famous?
Seen as the liberator because the Russians were responsible for leading Napoleon to his fall.
Prussia's delegate was....
King Frederick William III
France's delegate was...
Who was not invited but showed up anyway?
Who was the most conservative and wanted to go back to the Ancien Regime? (name the countries)
Austria, Prussia, Russia
When was the Congress of Vienna held?
Balance of Power
every country is a normal country; no country overpowered another; wanted to dismantle Grand Empire; wanted to make all the powers equal in order to restore peace
How did the Great Powers punish France? What goal does this go under?
Balance of Power: France had to pay an indemnity (a fine, to weaken France)
France had to pay 700,000,000 gold francs (from Napoleon's wasteful time); was paid off in 3 years; France is the most profitable, richest country at this period
What does Britain return to France? What goal does this go under?
Balance of Power: Most colonies and trading posts in the West Indies and India
What does Britain take? What goal does this go under?
British seize of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Cape Province (South Africa) is recognized
Why did Britain keep Ceylon (Sri Lanka)?
Kept Sri Lanka because of TRADE ROUTES; strategic trade routes to get to India; they are big on naval ships so Sri Lanka would allow them to control the Indian Seas
What happened to Italy? (They were pro-Napoleon) What goal?
Great Powers punished Italy by dissembling the Kingdom of Italy and replacing it with the Kingdom of Piedmont
What does Prussia get? What goal is this?
Balance of Power: 2/5 of Saxony goes to Prussia and the rest stays in Saxony
What is legitimacy?
It is the restoration of the ancient royal houses
If your family ruled over some tiny, unimportant country, well who cares about you? They would just laugh in your face! If you were convenient and mattered, then you could be restored to your rightful throne
Who does the House of Romanov rule over? Goal?
Legitimacy: Russia rules over Poland and Finland (personal union)
Poland and Finland have their own parliament and constitution, Russia just rules over them. They have much more freedom than Russia itself.
What happened to the neglected, erased countries?
Who did the House of Hapsburg rule over? Goal?
Who did the House of Bourbon rule over? Goal?
Legitimacy: France, Spain, Naples, and Parma
The House of Borbón is restored to Spain
Who did the House of Hanover rule over? Goal?
Who did the House of Hohenzollern rule over? Goal?
Who did the House of Bragance rule over? Goal?
Legitimacy: The House of Braganca is restored in Portugal. Brazil is independent by 1825; the Portuguese crown prince is then recognized as the emperor of Brazil.
What happened to Switzerland? Goal?
Legitimacy: Switzerland is restored to its original borders and neutral independence.
What happened to the Illyrian Provinces? Goal?
Legitimacy: France's former Illyrian Provinces are restored to Austria
What is compensation?
If you have lost land/if the Great Powers think you are a good guy, you will get land. If you can't get your land back, they will give you something to make up for it. Either you lose something or you're a good guy, you get something.
What happens to Finland? Goal?
Compensation: Russia and Sweden wanted Finland
Wanted Finland for the Baltic Seas- strategic thinking
Sweden loses Finland (they had it in the beginning)
Russia gets Finland so to compensate for that, Sweden gets Norway (Personal Union; taken from Denmark)
What does Austria get? Goal?
Lombardy (Milan) and Venetia (Venice)
What is Collective Security?
It is when a country begins to get too big, and the other countries start jumping on its back to bring it down. Major Powers must ally to keep peace and balance of power. This is how they brought Napoleon down.
Metternich admitted they messed up because they were too held up in themselves, that's how France got away with everything. In result, he proposed... (Goal?
Collective Security: The Quadruple Alliance
France is allowed to join, making it a Quintuple Alliance when they pay off their indemnity. Germany is also invited once they believe it has truly changed
What is the Holy Alliance? Goal?
Collective Security: Leading members were the sovereigns of Russia, Austria and Prussia, European monarchs eventually join- its members govern by "Christian" principles; actually, it's very reactionary league dedicated to maintaining the status quo of the Congress system by crushing liberalism, nationalism and revolutionary activity wherever they arise.
Just an excuse to go to war.
Why does Britain leave the Holy Alliance?
They drop out because Russia gets a little too big for its britches. They don't want to be dragged into crushing a rebellion when necessary. STILL FRIENDS, just no alliance
What are Buffer States?
Countries around France were too weak, so they couldn't slow the French down. So, the Great Powers buffed up the countries surrounding France in case another Napoleon shows up.
Who got the Austrian Netherlands and Luxembourg? Goal?
Buffer States: Holland was awarded the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) and Luxembourg. Belgium and Holland merge.
What happened to the Germanies?
The Confederation of the Rhine is dissolved and replaced with a new Austrian-dominated "German Confederation" of 39 independent states. - German Confederation created
Prussia and part of Austrian Empire
+ Plus 37 other German States
39 member states, all independent, all allies
Which changed did the Allies keep?
What is autonomous?
What were the long term effects?
Nationalism rose in the neglected, erased countries under foreign control such as Italy, Greece, and Germany. People wanted democracy back - saw that it was the best way to ensure justice and equality for all
Was the Congress of Vienna successful or not?
Yes! It turned out pretty well. There weren't any big wars/fights for a while.
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